Incidence of and survival following brain metastases among women with inflammatory breast cancer
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and survival following brain metastases among women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC).
Two hundred and three women with newly diagnosed stage III/IV IBC diagnosed from 2003 to 2008, with known Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and hormone receptor status, were identified. Cumulative incidence of brain metastases was computed. Survival estimates were computed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to explore the relationship between breast tumor subtype and time to brain metastases.
Median follow-up was 20 months. Thirty-two (15.8%) patients developed brain metastases with a cumulative incidence at 1 and 2 years of 2.7% and 18.7%, respectively. Eleven (5.3%) patients developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence with cumulative incidence at 1 and 2 years of 1.6% and 5.7%, respectively. Compared with women with triple receptor-negative IBC, those with hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative disease [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-1.51, P = 0.24] had a decreased risk of developing brain metastases, and those with HER2-positive disease (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.43-2.40, P = 0.97) had an increased risk of developing brain metastases, although these associations were not statistically significant. Median survival following a diagnosis of brain metastases was 6 months.
Women with newly diagnosed IBC have a high early incidence of brain metastases associated with poor survival and may be an ideal cohort to target for site-specific screening.
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ABSTRACT: To the authors' knowledge, the benefit of primary tumor resection among patients with metastatic inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is unknown. The authors reviewed 172 cases of metastatic IBC. All patients received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and/or surgery. Patients were classified as responders or nonresponders to chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and distant progression-free survival (DPFS) and local control at the time of last follow-up were evaluated. A total of 79 patients (46%) underwent surgery. OS and DPFS were better among patients treated with surgery versus no surgery (47% vs 10%, respectively [P < .0001] and 30% vs 3%, respectively [P < .0001]). Surgery plus radiotherapy was associated with better survival compared with treatment with surgery or radiotherapy alone (OS rate: 50% vs 25% vs 14%, respectively; DPFS rate: 32% vs 18% vs 15%, respectively [P < .0001 for both]). Surgery was associated with better survival for both responders (OS rate for surgery vs no surgery: 49% vs 23% [P < .0001] and DPFS rate for surgery vs no surgery: 31% vs 8% [P < .0001]) and nonresponders (OS rate for surgery vs no surgery: 40% vs 6% [P < .0001] and DPFS rate for surgery vs no surgery: 30% vs 0% [P < .0001]). On multivariate analysis, treatment with surgery plus radiotherapy and response to chemotherapy were found to be significant predictors of better OS and DPFS. Local control at the time of last follow-up was 4-fold more likely in patients who underwent surgery with or without radiotherapy compared with patients who received chemotherapy alone (81% vs 18%; P < .0001). Surgery and response to chemotherapy independently predicted local control on multivariate analysis. The results of the current study demonstrate that for select patients with metastatic IBC, multimodality treatment including primary tumor resection may result in better local control and survival. However, a randomized trial is needed to validate these findings. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.Cancer 05/2014; 120(9). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28550 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 10/2014; 93(2). DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2014.09.003 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain metastases are associated with significant morbidity. Minimal research has been conducted on the risk factors for and incidence of brain metastases in women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). 210 women with Stage III or IV IBC diagnosed from 1997-2011 were identified. Competing risk analysis and competing risks regression were used to calculate the incidence of brain metastases and identify significant risk factors. After a median follow-up in surviving patients of 2.8 years (range 0.6-7.6) and 3.3 years (range 0.2-14.5) in the 47 and 163 patients with (MET) and without (non-MET) metastatic disease at diagnosis, 17 (36 %) and 30 (18 %) developed brain metastases, respectively. The cumulative incidence at 1, 2, and 3 years was 17 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 8-30], 34 % (95 % CI, 20-48), and 37 % (95 % CI, 22-51) for the MET cohort. The corresponding non-MET values were 4 % (95 % CI, 2-8), 8 % (95 % CI 5-13), and 15 % (95 % CI, 10-22). Once non-MET patients developed extracranial distant metastases, the subsequent 1, 2, and 3 years cumulative incidence of brain metastases was 18 % (95 % CI, 10-28), 25 % (95 % CI, 15-36), and 31 % (95 % CI, 20-43). On multivariate analysis, brain metastases were associated with younger age [hazard ratio (HR), 0.73; 95 % CI, 0.53-1.00; P = 0.05] and distant metastases at diagnosis (HR, 2.33; 95 % CI, 1.11-4.89; P = 0.03). The incidence of brain metastases is high in women with IBC. Particularly for patients with extracranial distant metastases, routine screening with magnetic resonance imaging should be considered.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2015; 151(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3381-8 · 4.20 Impact Factor