Control of pancreatic secretion in humans
ABSTRACT Studies on the control of pancreatic secretion in humans of all ages have been a difficult task over the years because of patients' availability and ethic committee rules. Nevertheless, studies were performed and the objectives of this review are to summarize our knowledge on the development of secretory process in newborns, on the different phases of the pancreatic responses to a meal, on the pancreatic responses to the different components of the diet, on the mechanisms involved in the control of the pancreatic responses, and finally on the receptors involved in these controls.
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ABSTRACT: Periapical lesions are inflammatory conditions of tooth periapical tissues, triggered by dental pulp infection and characterized by exudation of immune cells to the affected tissues and production of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. The inflammatory periapical reaction is mainly driven by Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses, and such polarization may modulate progression of the disease and expression of bone proresorptive cytokines. IL-12 is a potent inducer of IFN-γ production, which stimulates Th1 effector cells. Many evidences have shown a positive correlation between the bone resorptive cytokine IL-1β and the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, IL-12 may have a potential role in the release of bone resorptive mediators and blockade of Th2 cytokines, affecting the progression of periapical bone loss. Nevertheless, IL-12 and IFN-γ have also been described as suppressors of osteoclast differentiation and activation, favoring bone maintenance. This paper focuses on the controversial roles of IL-12 in periapical lesions.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2010; 2010:327417. DOI:10.1155/2010/327417 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between reproductive history and menopausal symptoms among urban women. This was a cohort study of women aged 35 to 47 years recruited in Philadelphia, PA. Two hundred ninety-one premenopausal women meeting the study eligibility criteria and contributing reproductive health history and infertility information completed the assessments of occurrence and severity of several menopausal symptoms over a 14-year period. Reproductive history included the number of pregnancies, live births, preterm deliveries, and miscarriages. Trying to get pregnant for more than 1 year was used as an assessment of infertility. The occurrence of severe hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido was evaluated. Women scoring positive on the infertility index were significantly more likely to report severe decreased libido (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05-3.31) and were more than twice as likely to report severe vaginal dryness (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.19-6.94) in multivariable models. None of the other reproductive health indices were related to the report of severe hot flashes, vaginal dryness, or decreased libido. The race-specific models continued to find a significant increased risk of severe vaginal dryness (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.22-6.36) and decreased libido (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.04-3.34) among white women scoring positive on the infertility index; however, the relationship did not remain significant among African American women. Severe vaginal dryness and decreased libido are common and important considerations of the menopausal transition, and the experience of infertility problems may influence the report of severe vaginal dryness and decreased libido particularly among white women.Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 05/2011; 18(10):1143-8. DOI:10.1097/gme.0b013e318214d69d · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine, and vigabatrin) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type II isobolographic analysis. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. The combination of pregabalin with gabapentin at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was supra-additive (synergistic) in terms of seizure suppression while the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Similarly, the combination of pregabalin with tiagabine at the fixed-ratio of 25:1 was supra-additive, whereas the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 100:1 and 50:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Pregabalin with levetiracetam and vigabatrin at the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in this seizure model. The combinations of pregabalin with gabapentin (1:1) and pregabalin with tiagabine (25:1) appear to be favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in suppressing MES-induced seizures. Pregabalin in combination with levetiracetam and vigabatrin appears to be neutral producing only additivity in the mouse MES model.Epilepsy research 09/2011; 98(2-3):148-56. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2011.09.002 · 2.19 Impact Factor