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DENSIDAD, ESTRUCTURA SOCIAL, ACTIVIDAD Y MANEJO DE GUANACOS SILVESTRES (Lama guanicoe) EN EL SUR DEL NEUQUÉN, ARGENTINA

Mastozoologia Neotropical 01/2009;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Los guanacos (Lama guanicoe) son los ungulados silvestres más abundantes y ampliamente distribuidos de Sudamérica, aunque su abundancia y rango de distribución disminuyó drásticamente en el último siglo. En Patagonia, la esquila en vivo de guanacos silvestres es promovida por organismos gubernamentales como una actividad complementaria a la ganadería que contribuiría a conservar sus poblaciones. La falta de estudios ecológicos sobre poblaciones que habitan campos privados dificulta la evaluación de posibles efectos negativos de esta actividad. Nuestro objetivo fue estimar la densidad, la estructura social y las actividades de una población de guanacos silvestres en un establecimiento ganadero y evaluar los efectos de un evento de manejo. Estimamos la densidad y la estructura social, dentro y fuera del área manejada, y analizamos las actividades individuales antes y después del manejo, entre invierno 2004 y verano 2005. La densidad fue similar en ambas épocas y el tamaño de grupos de machos decreció en primavera. Los grupos familiares fueron la estructura social más frecuente. La alimentación fue la actividad más común en ambas estaciones. La actividad "reposo" en verano se asoció positivamente con la temperatura. Nuestros resultados sobre efectos del manejo son limitados debido al bajo éxito de captura y que pocos ejemplares fueron esquilados; sin embargo, sugieren que la esquila no modificó la estructura social de la población manejada en el corto tiempo. La continuidad de estos estudios es esencial para evaluar la sustentabilidad de esta actividad y su valor potencial como herramienta de conservación de la especie.

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