Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows
ABSTRACT Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA) percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR) while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05) were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid) and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001); moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1) of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) percentage (P<0.05).
- SourceAvailable from: Anne Ferlay[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on dairy performance and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of (i) supplementation with extruded linseed (EL), (ii) supplementation with synthetic or natural antioxidants, namely vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols (PERP), (iii) cow breed (Holstein v. Montbéliarde) and (iv) time of milking (morning v. evening). After a 3-week pre-experimental period 24 lactating cows (12 Holstein and 12 Montbéliarde) were divided up into four groups of six cows: the first group received a daily control diet (diet C) based on maize silage. The second group received the same diet supplemented with EL (diet EL, fat level approximately 5% of dietary dry matter (DM)). The third group received the EL diet plus 375 IU/kg diet DM of vitamin E (diet ELE). The fourth group received the ELE diet plus 10 g/kg diet DM of a PERP mixture (diet ELEP). Compared with the diet C, feeding EL-rich diets led to lower concentrations of total saturated FA (SFA) and higher concentrations of stearic and oleic acids, each trans and cis isomer of 18:1 (except c12-18:1), non-conjugated isomers of 18:2, some isomers (c9t11-, c9c11- and t11t13-) of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and 18:3n-3. The vitamin E supplementation had no effect on milk yield, milk fat or protein percentage and only moderate effects on milk concentrations of FA (increase in 16:0, decreases in 18:0 and t6/7/8-18:1). The addition of PERP to vitamin E did not modify milk yield or composition and slightly altered milk FA composition (decrease in total saturated FA (SFA) and increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA)). The minor effects of vitamin E may be partly linked to the fact that no milk fat depression occurred with the EL diet. During both periods the Holstein cows had higher milk production, milk fat and protein yields, and milk percentages of 4:0 and 18:3n-3, and lower percentages of odd-branched chain FA (OBCFA) than the Montbéliarde cows. During the experimental period the Holstein cows had lower percentages of total cis 18:1, and c9,c11-CLA, and higher percentages of 6:0, 8:0, t12-, t16/c14- and t13/14-18:1, and 18:2n-6 than Montbéliarde cows because of several significant interactions between breed and diet. Also, the total SFA percentage was higher for morning than for evening milkings, whereas those of MUFA, total cis 18:1, OBCFA and 18:2n-6 were lower. Extruded linseed supplementation had higher effect on milk FA composition than antioxidants, breed or time of milking.animal 04/2010; 4(4):627-40. · 1.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the addition of extruded flaxseed (EF) in dairy cow diets had an effect on milk fat and individual fatty acids (FA) recovery in cheese after 90 d of ripening. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows, divided into 3 experimental groups (6 cows/group), were fed 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with 0 (CTR), 500 (EF500), or 1,000 g/d (EF1000) of EF in 3 subsequent periods (2 wk/each), following a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Individual milk samples were collected on d 7 and 13 of each period to determine proximate and FA composition. Eighteen cheese-making sessions (2 for each group and period) were carried out, using a representative pooled milk sample obtained from the 6 cows of each group (10 L). At 90 d of ripening, cheeses were analyzed for proximate and FA composition. Cheese yield was computed as the ratio between the weights of ripened cheese and processed milk. Recoveries of fat, individual FA, and grouped FA were computed as the ratio between the corresponding weights in cheese and in milk. Inclusion of EF did not affect DMI, milk yield, or milk composition. Compared with CTR, the 2 diets containing EF increased the proportion of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 FA, in both milk and cheese. Cheese yield and cheese fat percentage did not differ among diets. Likewise, milk fat recovery in cheese was comparable in the 3 treatments and averaged 0.85. The recoveries of individual FA were, for the most part, not dissimilar from fat recovery, except for short-chain saturated FA (from 0.38 for C4:0 to 0.80 for C13:0), some long-chain saturated FA (0.56 and 0.62 for C20:0 and C21:0, respectively), and for C18:3n-6 (1.65). The recovery of saturated FA was lower than that of monounsaturated FA, whereas recovery of polyunsaturated FA was intermediate. Compared with medium- and long-chain FA, short-chain FA were recovered to a smaller extent in cheese. No differences in recovery were found between n-6 and n-3 FA. In conclusion, FA have different recoveries during cheese-making, with lower values for the short-chain compared with long-chain FA, and for saturated FA compared with unsaturated FA. The addition of EF in dairy cow diets did not influence cheese yield or fat recovery in cheese, irrespective of the inclusion level. The experiment confirmed that feeding cows with EF represents a successful strategy for improving the FA profile of dairy products, through an increase of n-3 FA.Journal of Dairy Science 11/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the first of this three-part series of articles, the debate in the clinical literature over the reality or extent of particular positive health benefits of a putative nutraceutical, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), in human subjects was reviewed. In the second part, we explored the means by which animal scientists and farmers—responding as much to annual sales in the hundreds of millions of dollars in health food stores of seed oil capsules rich in CLAs, as opposed to any conclusive clinical science—are aggressively pursuing ways to feed livestock and fowl that would naturally increase the concentration of CLAs per conventional consumer dietary portions of beef, lamb, goat, pork, and broiler chicken meat so as to be to be marketed as functional foods. In this third and final installment, animal nutrition means of enhancing CLAs in eggs and in fluid milk, cheese, yogurts, and butter are recorded. As in the prior parts of this series, the core journals covering this third chapter in the CLA research story are identified for agricultural and food science librarians.Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 01/2009; 10(2):124-148.
ITAL.J.ANIM.SCI. VOL. 6 (SUPPL. 1), 333-335, 2007333
Effects of extruded linseed dietary
supplementation on milk yield, milk quality
and lipid metabolism of dairy cows
P. Pezzi1, M. Giammarco1, G. Vignola1, N. Brogna2
1Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti. Università di Teramo, Italy
2Dipartimento di Morfofisiologia Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali. Università di Bologna, Italy
Corresponding author: Paolo Pezzi. Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti. Facoltà di Agraria,
Università di Teramo. Viale Crispi, 212, 64100 Teramo, Italy - Tel. +39 0861 266991 - Fax: +39 0861
266994 - Email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT: Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of
extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA) percentages of milk
fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration
(TMR) while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was sim-
ilar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05)
were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic
acid) and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids
(P<0.001); moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1) of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total
plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) per-
Key words: Dairy cow, Linseed, N-3 fatty acids, CLA.
INTRODUCTION – Since dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are perceived to be healthier than sat-
urated fatty acids, there has been a great deal of interest in increasing milk PUFA concentration to respond to con-
sumers’ demands. Among PUFA, particularly appreciate are n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Feeding
oilseeds to lactating dairy cows is one method to change the proportion of unsaturated FA in milk fat, with increas-
es as high as 40% (Kim et al., 1993), although extensive biohydrogenation occurs normally in the rumen (Palmquist
and Jenkins, 1980). In the present study, the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk
quality and blood lipid metabolites are evaluated.
MATERIAL AND METHODS – The trial was carried out in a Farm of Teramo Province (Italy). Twenty
Holstein Friesian dairy cows housed free stall were used. Animals were milked two times per day and fed total
mixed ration (TMR).At the beginning of the trial they were divided into two homogeneous groups (age, parity, BCS,
calving time, milk yield capacity and milk quality). TMR was composed (D.M. basis) by 29.03% corn silage, 18.56%
alfalfa hay, 9.39% mixed hay, 13.56% corn ground, 13.56% barley ground, 10.67% soybean meal (44% C.P.), 2.7%
minerals and vitamins premix, 2.16% flaked soybean and 0.37% palm oil calcium soap salts. Treated group also
received 700 g/day extruded linseed supplementation mixed in TMR (2.75% of TMR D.M. basis). TMR was deliv-
ered every day at 9:00 h.Trial time was 4 weeks. Feed intake was recorded as group means by difference from daily
TMR delivered and residues. One week before the starting, and two and four weeks later feed samples was taken
immediately after the delivery to the animals. Samples was analysed for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract,
crude ash (Martillotti et al., 1987), NDF (Van Soest, 1967), and fatty acid percentages (Gas Chromatographic sys-
tem Fisons Mega II). Milk yield was recorded at 0, 2 and 4 weeks after the beginning of the trial by sum of quan-
tity of two consecutive milking. At the same times individual milk and blood (from the jugular vein) samples were
collected. Each blood sample, collected at 8:00 using Lithium heparin tube, was immediately centrifuged (3500 g x
10’) and plasma obtained was readily frozen at –20°C. Milk samples were taken at the milking of 06:00 h and were
analysed for fat, protein, and lactose percentage, somatic cell count and urea content (Milkoskan, Foss Electric, DK).
PROC. 17thNAT. CONGR. ASPA, ALGHERO, ITALY
334ITAL.J.ANIM.SCI. VOL. 6 (SUPPL. 1), 333-335, 2007
Somatic cell count data were converted in a logarithmic scale: Somatic Cell Score (SCS; Ali and Shook, 1980). Milk
fat (Folch et al., 1957), total plasma lipids (Folch et al., 1957), and plasma phospholipids (Solid phase extraction
method) were analysed for fatty acids percentages (Gas Chromatographic system Fisons Mega II). All data were
processed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA for repeated measures. The statistical package employed
was the SPSS Version 3.0.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS – Dry matter intake was not affected by dietary treatment in agreement
with results of Gonthier et al. (2005), and averaged 22.76 kg/d (Table 1). Feeds compositions are shown in Table 1.
As expected only ether extract and fatty acid composition was different between two diets; indeed treated group
received 243.5 vs 42.1 g/head/d of alpha linolenic acid.
Table 1. Feed intake and composition of TMR and extruded linseed.
57.51 ± 1.94
13.59 ± 1.53
3.28 ± 0.42
35.03 ± 1.50
57.88 ± 1.43
13.97 ± 1.31
4.39 ± 0.17
35.19 ± 0.94
Dry Matter Intake
Net Energy Lact.
Fatty acids *
C18:3 n-3 (ALA)
19.52 ± 1.49
23.04 ± 0.95
49.16 ± 2.03
5.98 ± 0.69
16.39 ± 0.78
21.68 ± 0.28
34.84 ± 0.53
25.51 ± 0.69
(*) 2.30% and 1.57% respectively in control and treated TMR were undefined peeks.
As shown in Table 2 milk yield was higher (but not significantly) in treated group.This finding is in agreement with
data of Petit et al. (2004). Probably higher energy content of treated diet was the cause of this finding. Interestingly
milk fat percentage was not depressed by n-3 fatty acid supplementation; also this result was in agreement with
Petit et al. (2004). Interestingly milk urea content was higher in control group (P<0.05); this result may be
explained by a better utilization of metabolizable protein to synthesize milk protein in treated group.
Table 2. Milk production and milk quality.
Dietary extruded linseed supplementation significantly increased n-3 fatty acids concentration and particularly
alpha linolenic acid in total plasma lipids (P<0.001), in plasma phospholipids (P<0.001) and in milk fat (P<0.001;
Table 3). Treatment showed also a significant decrease of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (P<0.001) and a tendentially
reduction of arachidonic acid percentage (P<0.1) in milk fat, in total plasma lipids and in plasma phospholipids.
PROC. 17thNAT. CONGR. ASPA, ALGHERO, ITALY
ITAL.J.ANIM.SCI. VOL. 6 (SUPPL. 1), 333-335, 2007335
These findings are supported by data from other studies (Petit et al., 2002; Petit et al., 2004).Treated animals show
a significant increase in milk fat CLA content (P<0.01) in agreement with Gonthier et al., (2005).
Table 3. Fatty acid composition of milk fat.
Fatty acidsControl TreatedSEMTreatment Week
CLA cis 9, trans 11
The Authors want to thanks Mignini S.p.A.
The research was supported by “Fondo di Ricerca d’Ateneo (ex 60%) 2005” University of Teramo.
REFERENCES – Ali,A.K.A.,Shook,G.E..1980.An optimum transformation for somatic cell concentration in milk.
J. Dairy Sci. 63:487. Folch, J., Lees, M., Stanley, S.G.H., 1957. A simple method for purification of total lipids from
animal tissues. J.Biol. Chem., 226, 497-509. Gonthier, C., Mustafa,A.F., Ouellet, D.R., Chouinard, P.Y., Berthiaume,
R, Petit, H.V., 2005. Feeding Micronized and Extruded Flaxseed to Dairy Cows: Effects on Blood Parameters and
Milk Fatty Acid Composition. J. Dairy Sci. 88:748-756. Kim,Y.K., Schingoethe, D.J., Casper, D.P., Ludens, F.C., 1993.
Supplemental dietary fat from extruded soybeans and calcium soaps of fatty acids for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy
Sci. 76:197-204. Martillotti, F., Antongiovanni, M., Rizzi, L., Santi, E., Bittante, G., 1987. Metodi di analisi per la
valutazione degli alimenti d’impiego zootecnico. IPRA, 13. Palmquist, D.L., Jenkins, T.C., 1980- Fat in lactation
rations: A review. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1–14. Petit, H.V., 2002. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood
composition of dairy cows fed whole flaxseed. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1482–1490. Petit, H.V., Germiquet, C., Lebel, D., 2004:
Effect of feeding whole, unprocessed sunflower seeds and flaxseed on milk production, milk composition, and
prostaglandin secretion in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3889–3898. Van Soest, P. J., 1967. Development of a com-
prehensive system of feed analyses and its application to forages. J. Anim. Sci. 26:119-128.