A Program-Erasable High-k Hf0.3N0.2O 0.5 MIS Capacitor with Good Retention
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ABSTRACT: The frequency dependence of PECVD nitride and LPCVD oxide metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors is investigated with special attention for precision analog applications. At measurement frequencies of 1.0 MHz, nitride MIM capacitors show capacitance linearity close to that of oxide MIM capacitors, indicating potential for precision analog circuit applications. Due to dispersion effects, however, nitride MIM capacitors show significant degradation in capacitor linearity as the frequency is reduced, which leads to accuracy limitations for precision analog circuits. Oxide MIM capacitors are essentially independent of frequency.IEEE Electron Device Letters 06/2001; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on two manufacturable, low-cost MIM capacitor structures with Cu and Ta bottom electrode for 0.13 μm 6-level Cu-metallization technology. The quality factor (Q) of the MIM capacitor with SiN dielectric directly deposited on the Cu surface is found to be twice as high as that with Ta bottom plate. Both the Cu and Ta bottom-plate capacitors were found to exhibit low leakage and high breakdown field strength characteristics, as well as absence of dispersive behaviour, and good voltage and temperature linearity. The impact of the Cu surface roughness on the dielectric reliability was reduced by optimizing SiN precursor gas flow.Electron Devices Meeting, 2002. IEDM '02. International; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a metal-insulator-metal capacitor for SoC applications which has the highest capacitance density (up to 12 fF/μm<sup>2</sup>) ever reported for a device in this field. The simple MIM structure allowed development of the process as a single-mask add-on to conventional Cu BEOL processing.Electron Devices Meeting, 2002. IEDM '02. Digest. International; 02/2002
IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2007913
A Program-Erasable High-κ Hf0.3N0.2O0.5MIS
Capacitor With Good Retention
H. J. Yang, Albert Chin, Senior Member, IEEE, W. J. Chen, C. F. Cheng,
W. L. Huang, I. J. Hsieh, and S. P. McAlister, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—We describe a programmable-erasable MIS capaci-
tor with a single high-κ Hf0.3N0.2O0.5dielectric layer. This device
showed a capacitance density of ∼6.6 fF/µm2, low program and
erase voltages of +5 and −5 V, respectively, and a large ∆Vfb
memory window of 1.5 V. In addition, the 25◦C data retention
was good, as indicated by program and erase decay rates of only
2 and 6.2 mV/dec, respectively. Such device retention is attributed
to the deep trapping level of 1.05 eV in the Hf0.3N0.2O0.5.
Index Terms—Capacitor, dynamic random access memory
(DRAM), erase, high-κ, nonvolatile memory (NVM), program.
able to have a program-erasable nonvolatile memory (NVM)
function – to integrate low-cost embedded Flash mem-
ory into CMOS technology. To address these issues, we have
previously described a program-erasable AlN MIS capacitor,
which used a charge-trapping mechanism –. Although
small degradation was achieved at room temperature and
much better than a SiN MIS device , the data retention
at 100◦C was poor due to charge detrapping. Recently, an
HfNO metal–oxide–nitride–oxide–semiconductor (MONOS)
NVM with a lower N content (< 10%) has been demonstrated
with a record low program/erase (P/E) voltage, at a speed of
100 µs . In this paper, we describe an improved device that
incorporates a high-κ Hf0.3N0.2O0.5with a large N content of
20%, where a deeper trapping energy and/or a smaller band
offset are expected from increasing the N% –. A large
memory window, with a flat-band voltage difference (∆Vfb) of
1.5 V, was measured under ±5-V and 1-ms P/E conditions.
APACITORS are essential devices for various analog, RF,
and DRAM functions – in circuits. It is also desir-
Manuscript received June 12, 2007; revised July 11, 2007. This work
was supported in part by NSC 95-2221-E-009-275 and TDPA DOIT MOEA
94-EC-17-A-01-S1-047 of Taiwan, R.O.C. The review of this letter was
arranged by Editor C.-P. Chang.
H. J. Yang, A. Chin, and C. F. Cheng are with the Nano Science Technology
Center, Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao-Tung Uni-
versity, University System of Taiwan, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail:
W. J. Chen is with the Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National
Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, Ping-Tung 912, Taiwan,
W. L. Huang and I. J. Hsieh are with the Department of Electrical Engi-
neering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C.
S. P. McAlister is with the National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa,
ON K1A 0R6, Canada.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LED.2007.905375
Furthermore, the data retention showed very small P and E
decay rates (2 and 6.2 mV/dec, respectively) at 25◦C and still
good at 100◦C with small values of 104 and 116 mV/dec,
respectively –. The better high-temperature retention
than that of AlN MIS capacitor was due to the deep trapping
energy of the Hf0.3N0.2O0.5.
II. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
The MIS devices were formed by sputter-depositing a
∼29-nm-thick Hf1−x−yNxOydielectric on Si substrate, under
mixed O2 and N2 with controlled O2/N2 flow ratio. After
a postdeposition annealing, a TaN layer was deposited and
patterned to form the top electrode. Finally, the devices were
given a rapid thermal annealing at 900◦C for 30 s to evaluate
the thermal stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
was used to determine that the composition was Hf0.3N0.2O0.5.
The HfNO for NVM  is different from that used as a
CMOS gate dielectric , : the former is optimized for
large charge trapping, with a high N content, whereas the
latter requires a small N% to improve the high-temperature
stability to give a low trap density. The HfNO with N = 20%
is chosen by considering the increasing trapping energy with
N% increase, but which is low enough to prevent metallic
conduction. The formed HfNO shows good reproducibility by
controlling the O2/N2flows during reactive sputtering from an
Hf target . Even better reproducibility can be reached by
atomic layer deposition. The fabricated 100 × 100 µm devices
were characterized by I–V and C–V measurements. A pulse
generator was used for the P/E study.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In Fig. 1(a) and (b), we show the C–V characteristics and
∆Vfbtime dependence of the high-κ Hf0.3N0.2O0.5MIS capac-
itors, respectively. The devices showed a capacitance density of
6.6fF/µm2and aκvalue of∼22.The | Vfb|increases withP/E
time, as does ∆Vfbwith increasing P/E voltage. This suggests
that the Vthshift mechanism is caused by charge trapping. We
found a switching speed of ∼1 ms due to the rapid increase
in ∆Vfbbetween 0.1 and 1 ms and the approximate saturation
for times from 1 to 100 ms. From the ∆Vfb shift for P/E
conditions of ±5 V for 1 ms, a memory window of 1.5 V was
measured, which is larger than that of an AlN device  and
is comparable with certain silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon
0741-3106/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE
914IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2007
after applying a ±5-V P/E voltage for various periods from 0.1 to 100 ms.
(b) C–V for various P/E voltages from ±3 to ±5 V, as a function of the P/E
time. The insert shows the Vfb− P/E time plot.
characteristics of the Hf0.3N0.2O0.5 MIS capacitor
NVM  data. Note that both the 6.6 fF/µm2capacitance
density and the 9× tunability are larger than those for current
varactors made in IC foundries  (typically only 1.3 fF/µm2
density and 2.1× tunability) and are comparable with values
for advanced varactors , . The 5-V operation volt-
age is also useful for certain I/O circuits and is suitable
for RF IC.
Fig. 2(a) and (b) shows the retention and cycling character-
istics. The retention data indicate P and E decay rates of only 2
and 6.2 mV/dec, respectively, at 25◦C. At 100◦C, still good P
and E decay rates of 104 and 116 mV/dec, respectively, are ob-
tained –. Moreover, the retention of this Hf0.3N0.2O0.5
device is significantly better than that of an AlN MIS capacitor,
which had a closed memory window at 10000 s at 100◦C. A
memory window of 1.3 or 0.9 V was preserved under ±5 or
±4 V, 1-ms P/E for 103cycles, respectively, which indicates
the good device characteristics. Note that the use of a higher
N% in HfNO did not degrade the erase speed and reliability.
From previous T-Supreme and Medici simulation, the erase
mechanism is primary due to hole injection from the Si channel
. Therefore, the cycling stress reliability is comparable with
our results for AlN. We note that the cycling characteristics
can be improved by adding a thin tunnel oxide at the HfNO/Si
interface, similar to MONOS – and double-tunneling
TaN/Al203/SiN/Si02/Si (TANOS) cases .
Hf0.3N0.2O0.5MIS capacitor, measured to 10000 s, after a 1-ms ±5-V P/E
writing pulse. (b) Cycling characteristics of the Hf0.3N0.2O0.5MIS capacitor.
Data for an AlN MIS capacitor are shown for comparison in (a). The insert in
(b) shows the variation of Vfbwith cycling.
(a) Retention characteristics at 25
◦C and 100
◦C of the
TaN/Hf0.3N0.2O0.5/Si MISFET device, where the electron injection is
from the Si. Calculated data using both SE and FP conduction models are
included. The inserted figure shows the band diagram of the Hf0.3N0.2O0.5
MISFET devices, where the barrier height and trap energy were obtained from
SE and FP fits to the measured data.
ln(J) − E1/2
We plot the ln(J) − E1/2relation in Fig. 3 using the
measured I–V data from MISFET device, where the elec-
tron injection is from the Si under inversion. The linear
YANG et al.: PROGRAM-ERASABLE HIGH-κ Hf0.3N0.2O0.5MIS CAPACITOR915
ln(J) − E1/2relations fit a Schottky emission (SE) or
Frenkel–Poole (FP) conduction  model at 25◦C, 45◦C,
65◦C, and 85◦C. In the expression
η = 1 for the FP case and 4 for the SE case, which implies
different slopes (γ) in a ln(J) − E1/2plot. The extracted low-
field SE barrier height qϕband high-field FP trap energy qϕt
are plotted in the inserted figure. The data give a small SE
barrier height of 0.7 eV and a dominant FP trap energy of
1.05 eV. The small barrier height, deep trap energy, and the
corresponding better retention data suggest that the trap energy
is deeper than that in our previous AlN MONOS , .
The merits of using the ln(J) − E1/2relation for extracting
the trap energy and barrier height are its accuracy (< 6 ∼ 12%
error for changing dielectric thickness by more than 2× )
and its simple experimental setup, compared with methods that
require both high-resolution XPS and reflection electron energy
loss spectroscopy .
We have demonstrated a program-erasable Hf0.3N0.2O0.5
MIS capacitor with good 100
6.6 fF/µm2density. This new capacitor should find wide appli-
cations for analog, RF, DRAM, and low-cost embedded Flash
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