Article

Algunos rasgos del lenguaje del niño ciego

Anales de Psicología (Impact Factor: 0.55). 01/1991; 7(2):197-223.
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT The view on language acquisition in the blind child that shows a delay and some features that make it deficient is criticized. The language of a blind born girl is compared with that of her twin sighted sister. The analysis suggests that: (1) the language development of the blind infant can not be considered delayed as it displays a higher MLU than that of her sister; (2) her language is not odd nor limited as for the functions it serves, and it seems appropriated for her adaptation to the world; (3) the blind girl shows an ability to analyze the morphology of language and the use of rules because both infants make similar overregularization mistakes; (4) the use and quality of imitations, repetitions and routines by the blind girl is both an index of an strategy and an instrument for analyzing the language in the acquisition process; (5) the nature of imitations, repetitions and routines is progressive, as they are used in more complex grammatically sentences than the whole of utterances. It is concluded that the blind infant's language is not defective nor delayed in relation to that of her sister. Moreover, the blind girl shows a gestalt style in language processing.
RESUMEN
Se somete a crítica la denominada perspectiva tradicional sobre el desarrollo del lenguaje de los niños ciegos. Según ésta, los niños ciegos, debido a los efectos que sobre su desarrollo cognitivo tendrá la carencia de información visual, presentarán un retraso en su desarrollo lingüístico, así como ciertos rasgos de éste que lo hacen defectuoso. Los análisis efectuados, en que se compara una niña ciega de nacimiento con su hermana gemela con visión, indican que: (1) La niña ciega presenta una LME superior a la de su hermana, por lo que no se puede considerar retrasado. (2) Su lenguaje no es aberrante ni limitado en cuanto a las funciones que cubre, pareciendo adecuado para su adaptación al mundo. (3) Los errores de sobrerregularización que comete son semejantes a los de su hermana con visión, lo que indica su capacidad de análisis (morfológico) del lenguaje y el uso de reglas. (4) La forma en que la niña ciega emplea las imitaciones, repeticiones y rutinas, es indicativo de una cierta estrategia de análisis en el proceso de adquisición. El elevado uso de imitaciones y repeticiones con expansión y modificadas, especialmente, indica que son utilizadas como instrumento de análisis del lenguaje. (5) Finalmente se muestra el carácter progresivo que tienen las imitaciones, repeticiones y rutinas, al comprobar que las emisiones en que se emplean son más complejas gramaticalmente que el conjunto de producciones. Se concluye que el lenguaje de la niña ciega no es defectuoso, ni va retrasado en relación al de su hermana. Además, la niña ciega presenta un estilo Gestáltico en el procesamiento del lenguaje.

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