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EVALUATION OF CRUDE OIL QUALITY

Petroleum and Coal 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Fourteen type crude oils originated from USA, Mexico, Africa, Middle East, Russia, Canada,Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela having density and sulfur in the range API = 12.1 ÷ 40.8; S =0.4 ÷ 3.3% and total acid number varying in the range TAN = 0.1 ÷ 3.72 mg KOH/g oil havebeen investigated. The studied crude oils have been classified into four groups: I group – light,low sulfur one (30 - 400 API; S ≤ 0.5 % mass); ІІ group – light, sulfur one (30-400API; S= 0, 5 -1.5 % mass); ІІІ group – heavy, high sulfur one (15-300API; S=1.5 ÷ 3.1% mass); ІV group –extra-heavy, high sulfur one (150API, S ≥3 % mass). It has been established that extra-heavycrude oils (IV group) are characterized by light fraction low content, diesel fractions low cetaneindex, vacuum gas oil fractions low K-factor and vacuum residue fractions high Conradson carboncontent. It also has been found on the base of crude oil averaged prices for June 2009 (Brentcrude oil price = 69 US $/ barrel) that the difference of the Ist and IVth group crude oil prices wasabout 9 US $/ barrel. This difference amounts up to 22 US $/ barrel, as the crude oil price rises upto 140 US $/ barrel. The high acid crude oil price (such having TAN > 0.5 mg KOH/g oil) may beapproximately 9 US $/ barrel lower than one determined on the base of density and sulfur contentfor the corresponding group.

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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative analysis of separated carboxylic acid fractions of 33 crude oils from the UK, Italy and California, showed that the carboxylic acid fraction is a major factor responsible for the acidity in these oils. It was apparent that biodegradation is the main process that produces high concentrations of carboxylic acids in these crude oils with the extent of biodegradation, as measured from their hydrocarbon compositions, being clearly correlated with their total acid number (TAN). Although probably not important in influencing oil TAN, the distribution of C30–C32 hopanoic acids was also seen to be controlled by biodegradation, increasing in concentration for all but the most biodegraded oils. Hopanoic acids with the 17β(H),21β(H) stereochemistry were found in many of the biodegraded oils, and were thought to be mainly derived from the bacteria that were responsible for the biodegradation of the oil. This may have implications for the timing and mechanisms of the biodegradation involved. The role of C0–C3 alkylphenols in determining oil acidity was investigated and shown not to be a significant factor in the sample set studied. However, a number of undegraded oils, with low carboxylic acid contents were seen to have relatively high acidities, showing that factors other than biodegradation, possibly related to high sulphur content can control oil acidity in certain oil types.
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May 23, 2014