The underlying demand for network capacity can only be satisfied by contemporaneously increasing the transmission bit rate and the switching capacity. An increase of data transmission and processing speed unavoidable leads to high requirements on power supply. Especially in the case of high-capacity electronic routers, the question of power consumption will be the major issue and probably the most important limiting factor as routers become larger in the future. Using optical switching fabrics could relax the limitations to some extent, but optical buffers occupy larger area and dissipate more power than electronic ones. In this paper, we address power consumption issues in future high-capacity switching elements. Different technologies and switching paradigms such as electronic packet/circuit switching or optical circuit/burst/packet switching are considered. In particular, we consider four different node architectures as candidates for future high-performance network elements. These architectures are described and examined with regard to power consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, the total energy consumption of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector is continuously increasing due to the fast penetration of ICT into many areas of business and society. Particularly high growth rates have been observed in the area of technologies and applications for communication networks. Over the last decade, there has been an exponential increase of both data traffic and number of devices connected to the Internet, which has led to a fast increase of network capacity. In this context, the role of the network infrastructure is becoming increasingly important because satisfying the need for high capacity generally means higher energy consumption of the network equipment. Especially mobile networks have experienced constant evolutions that have led to new technology generations and advanced radio interfaces capable of providing data rates in the order of hundreds of Mbps or even Gbps. Additionally, the number of active mobile subscribers has grown continually and rapidly. Even through the use phase is very important because of the high energy consumption and related greenhouse emissions of telecom infrastructures, it is just a part of the story. The whole life cycle, i.e., also the production and disposal phases should be considered when determining sustainability of communication networks, especially because of the relatively short life-cycle of ICT devices. In this paper, we report results of a study that apply widely used thermodynamic tools in combination with network modeling to assess sustainability of radio access networks. In particular, we utilize the concept of available energy or exergy to determine the environmental impact of the whole life cycle of radio access network infrastructure and present results of a case study of radio access network for the city of Vienna.
ICEAA-IEEE APWC-EMS conference Special Session titled: Propagation and Network Planning, Channel Modeling and Human Exposure: Measurements and Modeling for Future Networks, Torino, Italy, September 9-13, 2013, invited; 01/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the main switching technologies currently used and their evolution in DWDM systems, and looks at how technology innovation enables different network architectures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper outlines the market for transparent optical networks and how these have developed, from their simple origins of saving the costs of OEO regeneration in point-to-point WDM links, to today's ring and mesh networks with flexible/reconfigurable nodal traffic access, using multi-way ROADM's. The paper then reviews and compares the technology options for multi-way ROADM's and the impact that full optical transparency has on the overall network design. The paper also considers alternative approaches, using OEO conversion and electrical switching, and suggests where these or transparent optical switching may be most applicable in an increasingly cost-sensitive environment.
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