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Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku Wanita Hamil Pengunjung Poliklinik Ibu Hamil (PIH) RSU Dr. Pirngadi Medan terhadap Kesehatan Gigi dan Mulut Selama Masa Kehamilan Periode November-Desember 2009

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Background: Oral health is one of the aspects that should be concerned during the pregnancy. During this time, the hormonal changes may create some changes in different part of body such as oral and dental. For example, gingivitis, granuloma pyogenik, dental caries and tooth erosion. These conditions can be prevented if enough and timely care of oral and dental parts was taken. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine women’s knowledge, attitude, and practice on oral and dental health during pregnancy. Material And Method: This was a cross-sectional study among 100 pregnant women who visit in Poliklinik Ibu Hamil RSUD Dr. Pirngadi Medan between November-December 2009. The data collected by questionnaire. Questionnaire gathered information on demographic variables, oral health knowledge, attitude, and practice of women on oral and dental care. Result: The results showed that only 5% of the pregnant women know that pregnancy had an effect on their teeth and gums, and only 3% of the women know that oral disease could affect on their fetal health and growth. More than half didn’t know that tetracycline could affect their baby’s teeth. About 79% of the women believed that pregnancy would not remove calcium from their teeth. Only 4% of the women received oral health education, and only 8% of the women reported to have visited dentist during pregnancy. Pregnancy experience were the major sources of oral health education and that all women were brushing their teeth daily, while 37% of the women believed that tooth brushing would reduce gum diseases. In addition, respondent were never receive an advice to see a dentist during pregnancy from doctor obgyn. Conclusion: Most of the participants in this study had inadequate oral health knowledge although majority of them were brushing their teeth daily. Likewise, most of the participants had not received oral health education, and only few of them reported to have dental visits. Therefore, researchers and health program planner should give increased attention to the oral health needs and behaviors of pregnant women. Kesehatan gigi dan mulut adalah salah satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan selama masa kehamilan. Pada masa ini, perubahan hormonal dapat menyebabkan beberapa perubahan tubuh, termasuk gigi dan mulut, seperti: gingivitis kehamilan, tumor kehamilan, karies gigi dan erosi gigi. Keadaan ini dapat dicegah dengan adanya pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku wanita hamil terhadap kesehatan gigi dan mulut selama masa kehamilan. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara survei deskriptif dengan pendekatan cross sectional yang melibatkan 100 orang wanita hamil pengunjung Poliklinik Ibu Hamil RSU Dr. Pirngadi Medan pada periode November-Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data diperoleh dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang berisi informasi berupa data demografik responden, pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku wanita hamil terhadap kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hanya 5% wanita hamil mengetahui kehamilan dapat mempengaruhi gusi dan gigi, dan hanya 3% responden yang mengetahui penyakit mulut dapat menpengaruhi kesehatan janin. Sebagian besar responden tidak mengetahui efek teratogenik tetrasiklin. Sebesar 79% responden yang berpendapat bahwa kehamilan tidak menyebabkan kehilangan kalsium gigi ibu. Hanya 4% responden yang menerima promosi kesehatan gigi dan mulut, dan hanya 8% responden yang berkunjung ke dokter gigi. Paritas merupakan sumber informasi utama dalam pengetahuan dan semua responden menyikat gigi setiap hari, dimana 37% responden percaya menyikat gigi dapat mengurangi gusi berdarah. Selain itu, tidak ada saran dokter kandungan kepada pasien antenatal untuk berobat ke dokter gigi. Sebagian besar responden pada penelitian ini memiliki pengetahuan yang kurang walaupun responden telah menyikat gigi setiap hari. Selain itu, responden tidak menerima penyuluhan kesehatan gigi dan mulut, dan hanya beberapa dari responden yang mengunjungi dokter gigi selama hamil. Oleh karena itu, peneliti dan tenaga kesehatan seharusnya lebih meningkatkan perhatian terhadap kebutuhan perawatan dan perilaku pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut wanita hamil 060600008

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