Neuropsicología de las funciones ejecutivas

Psicothema (Impact Factor: 0.96). 01/2010; 22.
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir el estado de la ciencia en el ámbito de la neuropsicología de las funciones ejecutivas, definidas como habilidades de alto orden implicadas en la generación, la regulación, la ejecución efectiva y el reajuste de conductas dirigidas a objetivos. Para ello hemos llevado a cabo una revisión teórica de la conceptualización de las funciones ejecutivas, sus sustratos cerebrales y organización dinámica, los principales modelos explicativos de su funcionamiento y los avances en su evaluación. Se presenta una visión actualizada e integradora de las distintas aproximaciones conceptuales y aplicaciones derivadas de la investigación neuropsicológica en funciones ejecutivas siguiendo una aproximación multicomponente que postula que existen múltiples procesos ejecutivos interactivos. Concluimos que las funciones ejecutivas constituyen mecanismos de integración intermodal e intertemporal que permiten proyectar cogniciones y emociones desde el pasado hacia el futuro con objeto de resolver situaciones novedosas y complejas. En la actualidad disponemos de un cuerpo de instrumentos neuropsicológicos capaces de caracterizar la competencia de los distintos componentes de las funciones ejecutivas y su interacción dinámica y modelos teóricos dirigidos a orientar nuevos avances en su comprensión

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    • "Executive impairments in patients with lesions in areas other than the prefrontal cortex (Cummings, 1993; Kramer et al., 2002), as well as functional neuroimaging studies of healthy participants during EF tasks (Fassbender et al., 2004; Collette et al., 2006) have indicated that this set of cognitive abilities does not reside in a single cerebral structure, but is instead the result of associations between a number of brain regions. These associations include reciprocal projections between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum (Heyder et al., 2004; Collette et al., 2005, 2006; Alvarez and Emory, 2006; Verdejo-García and Bechara, 2010). Some authors suggest that EF is a product of the activation of frontal-subcortical circuits (Cummings, 1993; Tekin and Cummings, 2002), such as the frontal-cerebellar connection (Middleton and Strick, 2000; Heyder et al., 2004; Krienen and Buckner, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although the frontal lobes have traditionally been considered the neural substrates of executive functioning (EF), recent studies have suggested that other structures, such as the cerebellum, may be associated with these abilities. The role of the cerebellum has only been sparsely investigated in connection with decision making (DM), an important component of EF, and the few results obtained on this front have been inconclusive. The current study sought to investigate the role of the cerebellum in DM by comparing the performance of patients with cerebellar strokes, frontal-damaged patients, and a healthy control group on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A total of nine cerebellar-damaged adults participated in the study, as well as nine individuals with frontal strokes and 18 control individuals. Patients were administered a version of the IGT adapted to the population of Southern Brazil. There was a marginal difference in mean IGT net scores between the two clinical groups, although both displayed impaired performance as compared to the control group. Overall, the DM ability of patients with cerebellar damage proved to be more preserved than that of individuals with frontal lobe strokes, but less preserved than that of the control group. These data suggested that, while the frontal lobes may be the most important brain structures for DM, the cerebellum might also play an active role in this cognitive function. Future studies assessing participants with lesions in different cerebellar regions and hemispheres will prove invaluable for the understanding of the neural structures involved in DM, and make significant contributions to the globalist-localizationist debate in DM neuroscience.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:61. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00061 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies have shown that executive functions are not totally dependent on the prefrontal cortex, but there is a network of neural interconnections that interact simultaneously involving other areas of the CNS, especially connections with subcortical structures such as basal ganglia (Suchy, 2009; Elliot, 2013). Additionally, it has been established that there is an interaction between the basal ganglia and other subcortical structures such as the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus in the conformation and configuration of circuits that interact with the frontal lobe for generating a regulated, controlled and supervised behavior of executive functions (Verma, Patil, & Lalla, 2012; Verdejo & Bechara, 2010; Suchy, 2009). Thus, it has currently been established that the Executive Functions depend on the integration of network circuits between the prefrontal cortex and the cortical subcortical structures and not just on one specified region. "
    Psychology 01/2014; 05(01):47-52. DOI:10.4236/psych.2014.51009
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    • "Executive functions (EF) can be considered a complex umbrella process that includes several subcomponents, including initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, shifting, switching, planning, speed of processing, and decision making, that work together to accomplishment goals (Chan, Shum, Toulopoulou, & Chen, 2008; Verdejo-García & Bechara, 2010). In neuropsychology, EF has received much attention because of its complexity and multifactorial features, although its nature and the components that integrate this mental function are still controversial (Elliott, 2003; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Garcia- Molina, Luna-Lario, Roig-Rovira, & Pelegrin-Valero, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compared decision-making processing between patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls. The study also sought to identify dissociations in the frequency of deficits in executive functions (EF) tasks that mainly assess decision making (DM; hot component) and inhibition (cold component) following TBI. The sample was composed of 16 post-TBI adults aged between 18 and 68 years and 16 healthy controls matched by age and education. Decision-making was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and inhibitory control was assessed with the Trail Making Task (TMT) and Hayling Test. No differences were found between groups in total scores and block scores on the IGT. However, TBI patients preferred the disadvantageous decks, with no evidence of learning during the task. Seven patients presented dissociations between deficient DM on the IGT and accurate inhibition on the Hayling Test and TMT. Conversely, five patients presented partial dissociations between deficits in the IGT and TMT and opposite performance in the Hayling Test. Only three patients exhibited deficits on all of the instruments. These results indicate that patients can maintain comparable performance on the IGT after TBI. Therefore we found dissociations in hot and cold executive components.
    Psychology and Neuroscience 12/2012; 5(2-2):183-190. DOI:10.3922/j.psns.2012.2.08
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