Arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair with suture-bridging technique: functional outcome and magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT The suture-bridging technique is a new arthroscopic technique to repair rotator cuff tears. Biomechanical advantages compared with double-row fixations have been described.
The authors hypothesized that arthroscopic suture-bridging repair of the supraspinatus tendon would result in a superior clinical outcome and lower retear rates compared with previously published results after double-row fixation.
Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Fifty-one consecutive patients, with a median age of 62 years (range, 37-76 years), who had undergone an arthroscopic suture-bridging repair of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear were evaluated in this prospective study 4, 12, and a median of 24 months postoperatively. Subjective and functional outcome was assessed using the simple shoulder test and Constant score. With magnetic resonance imaging 12 months postoperatively, the tendon integrity and potential predictors of failures were evaluated.
The simple shoulder test scores improved significantly from 9 points (range, 1-12 points) at 4 months, to 12 points (range, 1-12 points) at 12 months, and 12 points (range, 5-12 points) at 24 months postoperatively. The Constant score increased significantly from preoperative 64% (range, 37%-92%) to 82% (range, 36%-100%) at 4 months, 96% (range, 49%-100%) at 12 months, and 96% (range, 64%-100%) at 24 months postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging 12 months after surgery showed retears in 28.9%. Two different types of retears could be observed: insufficiently healed and medially retorn supraspinatus tendons. The Constant score did not differ significantly between the groups with retears and intact repairs. A patient age of more than 60 years was found to influence tendon healing significantly.
The hypothesis, that arthroscopic suture-bridging repair of the supraspinatus tendon would result in a superior clinical outcome and lower retear rates compared with previously published results after double-row fixation, could not be confirmed. The functional outcome after the new suture-bridging technique was good and comparable with the reported results after double-row repair from the literature. A structural failure of tendon repair was not identical to clinical failure.
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ABSTRACT: Forty-one patients scheduled for shoulder surgery underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of their affected shoulder to verify whether fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles could reproducibly be assessed by CT or by MRI and whether the grading with the 2 methods was comparable. In addition, rotator cuff muscle cross-sectional areas were measured on parasagittal MRI scans to establish a possible correlation between rotator cuff muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration. Interobserver reproducibility for grading fatty degeneration was good to excellent for CT and for MRI. The correlation between MRI and CT was fair to moderate and remained unsatisfactory, even if the classification system was simplified with only a 3- rather than a 5-grade scale as originally proposed. The degree of fatty degeneration was significantly related to the amount of atrophy of the respective muscles.Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 01/1999; 8(6):599-605. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Good functional results have been reported for arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears, but the rate of tendon-to-bone healing is still unknown. Our hypothesis was that arthroscopic repair of full-thickness supraspinatus tears achieves a rate of complete tendon healing equivalent to those reported in the literature with open or mini-open techniques. Sixty-five consecutive shoulders with a chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tear were repaired arthroscopically in sixty-five patients with use of a tension-band suture technique. Patients ranged in age from twenty-nine to seventy-nine years. The average duration of follow-up was twenty-nine months. Fifty-one patients (fifty-one shoulders) had a computed tomographic arthrogram, and fourteen had a magnetic resonance imaging scan, performed between six months and three years after surgery. All patients were assessed with regard to function and the strength of the shoulder elevation. The rotator cuff was completely healed and watertight in forty-six (71%) of the sixty-five patients and was partially healed in three. Although the supraspinatus tendon did not heal to the tuberosity in sixteen shoulders, the size of the persistent defect was smaller than the initial tear in fifteen. Sixty-two of the sixty-five patients were satisfied with the result. The Constant score improved from an average (and standard deviation) of 51.6 +/- 10.6 points preoperatively to 83.8 +/- 10.3 points at the time of the last follow-up evaluation (p < 0.001), and the average University of California at Los Angeles score improved from 11.5 +/- 1.1 to 32.3 +/- 1.3 (p < 0.001). The average strength of the shoulder elevation was significantly better (p = 0.001) when the tendon had healed (7.3 +/- 2.9 kg) than when it had not (4.7 +/- 1.9 kg). Factors that were negatively associated with tendon healing were increasing age and associated delamination of the subscapularis or infraspinatus tendon. Only ten (43%) of twenty-three patients over the age of sixty-five years had completely healed tendons (p < 0.001). Arthroscopic repair of an isolated supraspinatus detachment commonly leads to complete tendon healing. The absence of healing of the repaired rotator cuff is associated with inferior strength. Patients over the age of sixty-five years (p = 0.001) and patients with associated delamination of the subscapularis and/or the infraspinatus (p = 0.02) have significantly lower rates of healing.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2005; 87(6):1229-40. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the time-zero biomechanical strength and the surface area of repair between a single-row modified Mason-Allen rotator cuff repair and a double-row arthroscopic repair. Six matched pairs of sheep infraspinatus tendons were repaired by both techniques. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure the surface area of repair for each configuration. Specimens were biomechanically tested with cyclic loading from 20 N to 30 N for 20 cycles and were loaded to failure at a rate of 1 mm/s. Failure was defined at 5 mm of gap formation. Double-row suture anchor fixation restored a mean surface area of 258.23 +/- 69.7 mm(2) versus 148.08 +/- 75.5 mm(2) for single-row fixation, a 74% increase (P = .025). Both repairs had statistically similar time-zero biomechanics. There was no statistical difference in peak-to-peak displacement or elongation during cyclic loading. Single-row fixation showed a higher mean load to failure (110.26 +/- 26.4 N) than double-row fixation (108.93 +/- 21.8 N). This was not statistically significant (P = .932). All specimens failed at the suture-tendon interface. Double-row suture anchor fixation restores a greater percentage of the anatomic footprint when compared with a single-row Mason-Allen technique. The time-zero biomechanical strength was not significantly different between the 2 study groups. This study suggests that the 2 factors are independent of each other. Surface area and biomechanical strength of fixation are 2 independent factors in the outcome of rotator cuff repair. Maximizing both factors may increase the likelihood of complete tendon-bone healing and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. For smaller tears, a single-row modified Mason-Allen suture technique may provide sufficient strength, but for large amenable tears, a double row can provide both strength and increased surface area for healing.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 08/2008; 24(8):941-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor