Optimization and prevalidation of the in vitro ERalpha CALUX method to test estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of compounds.

BioDetection Systems BV, Science Park 406, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.14). 05/2010; 30(1):73-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Estrogenicity of chemicals has received significant attention and is linked to endocrine-disrupting activities. However, there is a paucity of validated methods to assess estrogenicity in vitro. We have established a robust method to test estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of compounds in vitro, as an alternative to using animal models such as the uterotrophic assay. To this end we optimized protocols to be used in combination with CALUX reporter gene assays and carried out an in house prevalidation, followed by two rounds of tests to establish transferability. Problems in the initial test with transferability were solved by isolation of a novel cell clone of the ERalpha CALUX line with greatly improved stability and luciferase levels. This cell line proved to be a very suitable and reliable predictor of estrogenicity of chemicals and was able to readily rank a range of chemicals on the basis of their EC50 values.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study a previously established integrated testing strategy (ITS) for in vitro estrogenicity testing was extended with additional in vitro assays in order to broaden its sensitivity to different modes of action resulting in apparent estrogenicity, i.e. other than estrogen receptor (ER) binding. To this end, an extra set of 10 estrogenic compounds with modes of action in part different from ER binding, were tested in the previously defined ITS, consisting of a yeast estrogen reporter gene assay, an U2OS estrogen receptor (ER) α CALUX reporter gene assay and a cell-free coregulator binding assay. Two androgen reporter gene assays and the enhanced H295R steroidogenesis assay were added to that previous defined ITS. These assays had added value, as several estrogenic model compounds also elicited clear and potent antiandrogenic properties and in addition also showed effects on steroidogenesis that might potentiate their apparent estrogenic effects in vivo. Adding these assays, examining mechanisms of action for estrogenicity apart from ERα binding, gives a more compete and comprehensive assessment of the ability of test compounds to interfere with endocrine signaling. It was concluded that the extended ITS will go beyond in vivo estrogenicity testing by the uterotrophic assay, thereby contributing to the 3R-principles.
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in the endocrine potency of municipal wastewater at 3 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia were investigated using a panel of in vitro receptor-driven transactivation assays. The assays were based on human estrogen receptor α, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2. Total removal efficiencies for estrogenic activity in the dissolved phase were 79.8 to 99.4%. Chemical analysis of 17β-estradiol, estrone and 17α-ethinylestradiol levels showed that they accounted for the majority of the observed in vitro estrogenic activity in the final effluents but only 18 to 70% of estrogenic activity in the influents. Removal efficiency for androgenic activity was 97.5 to 100%. Endocrine activity levels were low in the final effluent of the WWTP with the lowest catchment population, with only estrogenic activity detected. In the final effluent of the WWTP with intermediate catchment population, estrogenic, glucocorticoid and PPARγ2 activities were detected. Estrogenic, anti-androgenic, progestagenic, glucocorticoid and peroxisome proliferator activities were detected in the final effluent of the WWTP with the highest catchment population. The present study confirms the efficacy of secondary and tertiary treatment in reducing the concentrations of endocrine-active compounds in municipal wastewater. Further work is required to determine the possible health risks to aquatic biota posed by multiple hormonal activities present at low levels. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive study was undertaken involving chemical (inorganic and organic) and bioanalytical (a suite of 14 in vitro bioassays) assessments of coal seam gas (coal bed methane) associated water (CSGW) in Queensland, Australia. CSGW is a by-product of the gas extraction process and is generally considered as water of poor quality. This was done to better understand what is known about the potential biological and environmental effects associated with the organic constituents of CSGW in Australia. In Queensland, large amounts of associated water must be withdrawn from coal seams to allow extraction of the gas. CSGW is disposed of via release to surface water, reinjected to groundwater or reused for irrigation of crops or pasture, supplied for power station cooling and or reinjected specifically to augment drinking water aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from private wells tapping into the Walloon Coal Measures, the same coal aquifer exploited for coal seam gas production in the Surat Basin, Australia. The inorganic characteristics of these water samples were almost identical to the CSGW entering the nearby gas company operated Talinga-Condabri Water Treatment Facility. The water is brackish with a pH of 8 to 9, high sodium, bicarbonate and chloride concentrations but low calcium, magnesium and negligible sulphate concentrations. Only low levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the water samples, and neither phenols nor volatile organic compounds were found. Results from the bioassays showed no genotoxicity, protein damage, or activation of hormone receptors (with the exception of the estrogen receptor). However, five of the 14 bioassays gave positive responses: an arylhydrocarbon-receptor gene activation assay (AhR-CAFLUX), estrogenic endocrine activity (ERα-CALUX), oxidative stress response (AREc32), interference with cytokine production (THP1-CPA) and non-specific toxicity (Microtox). The observed effects were benchmarked against known water sources and were similar to secondary treated wastewater effluent, stormwater and surface water. As mixture toxicity modelling demonstrated, the detected PAHs explained less than 5% of the observed biological effects.
    Environmental Chemistry 06/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 6, 2014