Triptolide Induces Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Apoptotic and Autophagic Pathways
ABSTRACT Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, among the most lethal human malignancies, is resistant to current chemotherapies. We previously showed that triptolide inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and prevents tumor growth in vivo. This study investigates the mechanism by which triptolide kills pancreatic cancer cells.
Cells were treated with triptolide and viability and caspase-3 activity were measured using colorimetric assays. Annexin V, propidium iodide, and acridine orange staining were measured by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence was used to monitor the localization of cytochrome c and Light Chain 3 (LC3) proteins. Caspase-3, Atg5, and Beclin1 levels were down-regulated by exposing cells to their respective short interfering RNA.
We show that triptolide induces apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2, Capan-1, and BxPC-3 cells and induces autophagy in S2-013, S2-VP10, and Hs766T cells. Triptolide-induced autophagy has a pro-death effect, requires autophagy-specific genes, atg5 or beclin1, and is associated with the inactivation of the Protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of Rapamycin/p70S6K pathway and the up-regulation of the Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway. Inhibition of autophagy in S2-013 and S2-VP10 cells results in cell death via the apoptotic pathway whereas inhibition of both autophagy and apoptosis rescues cell death.
This study shows that triptolide kills pancreatic cancer cells by 2 different pathways. It induces caspase-dependent apoptotic death in MiaPaCa-2, Capan-1, and BxPC-3, and induces caspase-independent autophagic death in metastatic cell lines S2-013, S2-VP10, and Hs766T, thereby making it an attractive chemotherapeutic agent against a broad spectrum of pancreatic cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Triptolide, a diterpenoid obtained from Tripteryglum wilfordii Hook.f, has attracted interest for its anti- tumor activities against human tumor cell lines in recent years. This report focuses on anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in human melanoma A375 cells assessed by CCK8 assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. In addition, triptolide-induced arrest in the S phase was also observed. Caspase assays showed the apoptosis induced by triptolide was caspase-dependent and probably through intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, expression of NF-κB (p65) and its downstream factors such as Bcl-2, Bcl-XL was down-regulated. Taken together, the data indicate that triptolide inhibits A375 cells proliferation and induces apoptosis by a caspase-dependent pathway and through a NF-κB-mediated mechanism.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2012; 13(4):1611-5. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1611
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ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neuromuscular disease. Since disease severity is related to the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, up-regulated functional SMN protein levels from the SMN2 gene are considered a major SMA drug-discovery strategy. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide purified from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., as a new compound for increasing SMN protein. The effects and mechanisms of triptolide on the production of SMA protein were determined by cell-based assays using the motor neuronal cell line NSC34 and skin fibroblasts from SMA patients. Wild-type (Smn(+/+) SMN2(-/-) , C57BL/6) and SMA-like (Smn(-/-) SMN2) mice were injected with triptolide (0.01 or 0.1 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) , i.p.) and their survival rate and level of change in SMN protein in neurons and muscle tissue measured. In NSC34 cells and human SMA fibroblasts, pM concentrations of triptolide significantly increased SMN protein expression and the levels of SMN complex component (Gemin2 and Gemin3). In human SMA fibroblasts, triptolide increased SMN-containing nuclear gems and the ratio of full-length transcripts (FL-SMN2) to SMN2 transcripts lacking exon 7 (SMN2Δ7). Furthermore, in SMA-like mice, triptolide significantly increased SMN protein levels in the brain, spinal cord and gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, triptolide treatment increased survival and reduced weight loss in SMA-like mice. Triptolide enhanced SMN protein production by promoting SMN2 activation, exon 7 inclusion and increasing nuclear gems, and increased survival in SMA mice, which suggests triptolide might be a potential candidate for SMA therapy.British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2012; 166(3):1114-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01829.x
Conference Paper: Single-pole writer instabilities dependent on the pole-tip geometry[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe our experimental demonstration that the single-pole writer instabilities dependent on the pole-tip geometry. The instability of these writers is strongly dependent upon the throat height, which is defined as the distance between the flared point of pole tip and the air-bearing surface.Magnetics Conference, 2003. INTERMAG 2003. IEEE International; 01/2003