Clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics of clonal mast cell disorders presenting with systemic mast cell activation symptoms.
ABSTRACT Systemic mast cell activation disorders (MCADs) are characterized by severe and systemic mast cell (MC) mediators-related symptoms frequently associated with increased serum baseline tryptase (sBt).
To analyze the clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics of adult patients presenting with systemic MC activation symptoms/anaphylaxis in the absence of skin mastocytosis who showed clonal (c) versus nonclonal (nc) MCs and to provide indication criteria for bone marrow (BM) studies.
Eighty-three patients were studied. Patients showing clonal BM MCs were grouped into indolent systemic mastocytosis without skin lesions (ISMs(-); n = 48) and other c-MCADs (n = 3)-both with CD25(++) BM MCs and either positive mast/stem cell growth factor receptor gene (KIT) mutation or clonal human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA) tests-and nc-MCAD (CD25-negative BM MCs in the absence of KIT mutation; n = 32) and compared for their clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics.
Most clonal patients (48/51; 94%) met the World Health Organization criteria for systemic mastocytosis and were classified as ISMs(-), whereas the other 3 c-MCAD and all nc-MCAD patients did not. In addition, although both patients with ISMs(-) and patients with nc-MCAD presented with idiopathic and allergen-induced anaphylaxis, the former showed a higher frequency of men, cardiovascular symptoms, and insect bite as a trigger, together with greater sBt. Based on a multivariate analysis, a highly efficient model to predict clonality before BM sampling was built that includes male sex (P = .01), presyncopal and/or syncopal episodes (P = .009) in the absence of urticaria and angioedema (P = .003), and sBt >25 microg/L (P = .006) as independent predictive factors.
Patients with c-MCAD and ISMs(-) display unique clinical and laboratory features different from nc-MCAD patients. A significant percentage of c-MCAD patients can be considered as true ISMs(-) diagnosed at early phases of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Background Mast cell diseases include mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes, some of which have been shown to involve clonal defects in mast cells that result in abnormal cellular proliferation or activation. Numerous clinical studies of mastocytosis have been published, but no population-based comprehensive surveys of patients in the United States have been identified. Few mast cell disease specialty centers exist in the United States, and awareness of these mast cell disorders is limited among nonspecialists. Accordingly, information concerning the experiences of the overall estimated population of these patients has been lacking. Objective To identify the experiences and perceptions of patients with mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes, and related disorders, The Mastocytosis Society (TMS), a US based patient advocacy, research, and education organization, conducted a survey of its members and other people known or suspected to be part of this patient population. Methods A Web-based survey was publicized through clinics that treat these patients and through TMS's newsletter, Web site, and online blogs. Both online and paper copies of the questionnaire were provided, together with required statements of consent. Results The first results are presented for 420 patients. These results include demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, allergies, provoking factors of mast cell symptoms, and disease impact. Conclusion Patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes have provided clinical specialists, collaborators, and other patients with information to enable them to explore and deepen their understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people coping with these disorders.The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 01/2013;
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ABSTRACT: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674912026759#Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology · 12.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A preferential association between systemic mastocytosis (SM) and hymenoptera allergy (HVA) has been observed. Patients with both diseases are at risk for more severe reactions, and venom immunotherapy (VIT) may represent a life-saving treatment, but the use of VIT in such patients raised concerns about its safety. We evaluated a large population of patients with SM and HVA who received VIT. This prospective study was performed in Italy and Spain. A diagnosis of SM and HVA and a VIT prescription were made according to international recommendations. The patients were carefully followed up during VIT, with special attention to field stings. A total of 84 patients (70 men, 14 women; mean age 52.1 years) were included, 81% with grade IV reaction, 91% with indolent SM. No difference was seen between the Italian and Spanish patients. There were 10 adverse reactions during the induction phase: 3 with the conventional induction and 7 with the rush-modified induction, none resulted in epinephrine administration and/or hospitalization. Fifty patients had one or more field re-sting (95 episodes), none during induction. The time elapsed from starting VIT and first re-sting was 2 months to 7 years, and the number of re-stings per patient was 1-6. Of the 50 patients who were re-stung, 43 (86%) resulted in being fully protected. Seven patients had reactions, and the maintenance dose was safely increased to 200 mcg. The maintenance dose interval was not different between patients with and those without reactions at re-stings. VIT is well tolerated, safe, and effective in patients with SM.The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice. 09/2013; 1(5):474-8.