Nasal mucosal administration of chitin microparticles boosts innate immunity against influenza A virus in the local pulmonary tissue.
ABSTRACT Influenza virus infection remains a major health concern due to morbidity and mortality associated with epidemics and occasional pandemics. The absence of acquired immunity to antigenically distinct, emerging virus strains stresses the need for a generic drug that protects independent of vaccination. Here, we demonstrate that prophylactic administration of chitin microparticles (CMP) via the intranasal route significantly reduced lung viral titres and clinical signs. Pre-treatment boosted the innate immune response to subsequent infection by recruiting innate cells, such as neutrophils, and increasing inflammatory cytokines. Although an increase in virus-specific T cells was observed, the memory phase was diminished. Our data demonstrate that in the absence of prior exposure to influenza virus, CMP reduce clinical signs by boosting innate immunity.
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ABSTRACT: Chitin and its some derivatives are known to be non-allergic and non-toxic substances. It has been shown that chitin microparticles have immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo immunomodulatory activities of chitin microparticles (CMPs) on L. major-infected BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were infected with L. major promastigotes at their base of the tail. CMPs (100 μg/100 μl) were injected into the site of infection from three days before to two or eight weeks after infection at two-day intervals. Cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10) were measured using ELISA assays. Compared to the untreated group, production of TNF-α was significantly elevated in the CMPs-treated group. Moreover, the IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio was significantly elevated in CMPs-treated infected mice (P = 0.023). Notably, the concentration of IL-10 was higher in CMPs-treated mice. These results showed that CMPs have in vivo immunomodulatory effects via the production of IFN-γ and IL-10. We also measured the onset and size of lesions in both treated and untreated mice. The average times taken for the onset of the lesion formation were 35 and 29 days for CMPs-treated and untreated mice (P = 0.023), respectively. The mean size of the lesions was smaller in CMPs-treated group. Our study serves as a basis for future investigations on the application of CMPs as a prophylactic (vaccine adjuvant) and/or therapeutic modality against leishmaniasis.Parasitology International 12/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2014.12.007 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunotherapies that can either activate or suppress innate immune responses are being investigated as treatments against infectious diseases and the pathology they can cause. The objective of these therapies is to elicit protective immune responses thereby limiting the harm inflicted by the pathogen. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in numerous host immune defenses and has been identified as an immunotherapeutic target against the consequences of infectious challenge. This review focuses on some of the recent advances being made in the development of TLR-ligands as potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic agents.Frontiers in Immunology 03/2014; 5:79. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00079
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of antibiotics has helped to save the lives of an uncountable number of people. Antibiotics have been grouped in different classes based on their origin, structure, and mechanism of action. An intrinsic and acquired mechanism of antimicrobial resistance has been identified in many bacterial strains that are of high clinical importance. This has seriously jeopardized the use of antibiotics and has also caused the spread of microbes that are resistant to effective first-choice, or "first-line" drugs. Thus, sensible use of antibiotics and the search for effective alternative measures are of high importance in order to minimize the effect due to existing and emerging antimicrobial resistant microbes.