Beneficial effects of levosimendan on cerebral vasospasm induced by subarachnoid haemorrhage: an experimental study.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of levosimendan to prevent cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit model of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).
Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were allocated into three groups randomly. SAH was induced by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. (Group 1 = control:sham surgery group, Group 2 = SAH alone group, Group 3 = SAH plus levosimendan group). Histopathological examination was performed on day 3 as described. Intravenous levosimendan dose (initially 12 microg kg(-1) infusion, continuously for at least 10 minutes and then continued with a dose of 0.2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) treatment was started after the induction of SAH. Three days later, the animals were sacrificed.
In pathological investigation; there was statistically significant difference in luminal area and muscular wall thickness of the basilar artery between all groups (p < 0.005). Malondialdehyde level was also found significantly low in the levosimendan group compared with the SAH group.
Intravenous levosimendan treatment was found effective by increasing the pathological luminal area and reducing muscular wall thickness measurements. This is the first study to show that intravenous administration of levosimendan is effective in preventing cerebral vasospasm induced by SAH in rabbits.
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ABSTRACT: The reaction of lipid peroxides in animal tissues with thiobarbituric acid was dependent on pH of the reaction mixture as was the case for linoleic acid hydroperoxide. The optimum pH was found to be 3.5. Taking this fact into consideration, a standard procedure for the assay of lipid peroxide level in animal tissues by their reaction with thiobarbituric acid was developed as follows. Ten percent ( tissue homogenate was mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, acetate buffer (pH 3.5), and aqueous solution of thiobarbituric acid. After heating at 95°C for 60 min, the red pigment produced was extracted with n-butanol-pyridine mixture and estimated by the absorbance at 532nm. As an external standard, tetramethoxy-propane was used, and lipid peroxide level was expressed in terms of nmol malondialdehyde. Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated. The results were in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.Analytical Biochemistry 07/1979; 95(2):351-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large unilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was created in 21 monkeys, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the cisterna magna or left internal carotid artery in 3 others (normals). Cerebral fixation was performed on Day 14 after SAH or 15 minutes after HRP injection. The major cerebral arteries from both the nonclot (control) and clot sides and the normal animals were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). SEM of the adventitial surfaces of control and normal arteries revealed tunnel-like structures along the longitudinal axis. No vasa vasorum were seen, but adventitial rounded openings were observed, 10 to 35 micron in diameter in vessels of the anterior circulation and up to 80 micron in diameter in the basilar arteries. The stomas, numbering 5 to 10/mm of specimen, appeared to connect the subarachnoid and intraadventitial spaces or pathways. In SAH arteries, the tunica adventitia was coated with cellular remnants of hematoma or dense, well-organized blood clots, the removal of which revealed blocked stomas. TEM showed HRP in the vessel walls after injection into the cisterna magna, but not after injection into the carotid artery. TEM of control arteries revealed Virchow-Robin (intraadventitial) spaces lined by simple planar epithelium-like cells; Virchow-Robin spaces contained sparse nerve fiber bundles and connective tissue fibers. In SAH arteries, these spaces were almost filled with strands of connective tissue and fibroblasts; no nerve fibers were detected. Vasogenic substances probably reach smooth muscle cells via the adventitial stomas. SAH occluding the stomas may block the cerebrospinal fluid circulation, disturbing nutrition of the arterial wall or removal of wastes from it, thereby aggravating vasospasm.Neurosurgery 01/1987; 19(6):935-45. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during control to 29 +/- 1 ms at the high dose) and increased the magnitude of LV -dP/dtmin in dogs with intact but not blocked ANS reflexes, suggesting that relaxation was enhanced by favorable changes in systemic hemodynamics or ANS activation and direct effects of this drug on lusitropic state. Levosimendan also increased dL/dtmax to a greater degree in ANS-intact dogs, indicating that improvement of rapid ventricular filling was also partially dependent on ANS tone. No changes in Kp were observed in either experimental group. The results indicate that levosimendan decreases preload and afterload and has positive inotropic and lusitropic properties. The actions of levosimendan on diastolic function are largely mediated by the ANS.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 09/1995; 26(2):179-88. · 2.38 Impact Factor