Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in australia and new zealand.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Planning for the treatment of infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus through health care systems in developed countries during winter in the Northern Hemisphere is hampered by a lack of information from similar health care systems. METHODS: We conducted an inception-cohort study in all Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) during the winter of 2009 in the Southern Hemisphere. We calculated, per million inhabitants, the numbers of ICU admissions, bed-days, and days of mechanical ventilation due to infection with the 2009 H1N1 virus. We collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and on treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: From June 1 through August 31, 2009, a total of 722 patients with confirmed infection with the 2009 H1N1 virus (28.7 cases per million inhabitants; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.5 to 30.8) were admitted to an ICU in Australia or New Zealand. Of the 722 patients, 669 (92.7%) were under 65 years of age and 66 (9.1%) were pregnant women; of the 601 adults for whom data were available, 172 (28.6%) had a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) greater than 35. Patients infected with the 2009 H1N1 virus were in the ICU for a total of 8815 bed-days (350 per million inhabitants). The median duration of treatment in the ICU was 7.0 days (interquartile range, 2.7 to 13.4); 456 of 706 patients (64.6%) with available data underwent mechanical ventilation for a median of 8 days (interquartile range, 4 to 16). The maximum daily occupancy of the ICU was 7.4 beds (95% CI, 6.3 to 8.5) per million inhabitants. As of September 7, 2009, a total of 103 of the 722 patients (14.3%; 95% CI, 11.7 to 16.9) had died, and 114 (15.8%) remained in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 H1N1 virus had a substantial effect on ICUs during the winter in Australia and New Zealand. Our data can assist planning for the treatment of patients during the winter in the Northern Hemisphere. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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ABSTRACT: The first pandemic of the 21 st century occurred in 2009 and was caused by the H1N1pdm influenza A virus. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection in adults are characterized by sustained immune activation, whereas pregnant women are prone to more severe forms of influenza, with increased morbi-mortality. During the H1N1pdm09 pandemic, few studies assessed the immune status of infected pregnant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of several immune markers in 13 H1N1pdm2009 virus-infected pregnant (PH1N1) women, in comparison to pregnant women with an influenza-like illness (ILI), healthy pregnant women (HP) and healthy non-pregnant women (HW). The blood leukocyte phenotypes and the serological cytokine and chemokine concentrations of the blood leukocytes, as measured by flow cytometry, showed that the CD69+ cell counts in the T and B-lymphocytes were significantly higher in the PH1N1 group. We found that pro-inflammatory (TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and some chemokines (CXCL8, CXCL10), which are typically at lower levels during pregnancy, were substantially increased in the women in the ILI group. Our findings suggest that CD69 overexpression in blood lymphocytes and elevated levels of serum cytokines might be potential markers for the discrimination of H1N1 disease from other influenza-like illnesses in pregnant women. Copyright: ß 2014 Cérbulo-Vázquez et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):1-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical differentiation of influenza from dengue and other febrile illnesses (OFI) is difficult, and available rapid diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity. We conducted a retrospective study to compare clinical and laboratory findings between (i) influenza and dengue and (ii) influenza and OFI. Of 849 enrolled patients, the mean time between illness onset and hospital presentation was 1.7, 3.7, and 3 days for influenza, dengue, and OFI, respectively. Among pediatric patients (≤18 years) (445 influenza, 24 dengue, and 130 OFI), we identified absence of rashes, no leukopenia, and no marked thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <100 × 109 cells/L) as predictors to distinguish influenza from dengue, whereas rhinorrhea, malaise, sore throat, and mild thrombocytopenia (platelet counts 100-149 × 109/L) were predictors that differentiated influenza from OFI. Among adults (>18 years) (81 influenza, 124 dengue, and 45 OFI), no leukopenia and no marked thrombocytopenia distinguished influenza from dengue, while rhinorrhea and malaise differentiated influenza from OFI. A diagnostic algorithm developed to distinguish influenza from dengue using rash, leukopenia, and marked thrombocytopenia showed >90% sensitivity to identify influenza in pediatric patients. This study identified simple clinical and laboratory parameters that can assist clinicians to distinguish influenza from dengue and OFI. These findings may help clinicians diagnose influenza and facilitate appropriate management of affected patients, particularly in resource-poor settings.BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 14(1):623. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This report presents a review of the efficacy and safety of peramivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that was granted Emergency Use Authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from October 23, 2009 to June 23, 2010 during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2017-2038. · 3.03 Impact Factor