Article

Estimating the Burden of Disease Attributable to Low Fruit and Vegetable Intake in South Africa in 2000

Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, Cape Town.
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde (Impact Factor: 1.71). 08/2007;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To estimate the burden of disease attributed to low fruit and vegetable intake by sex and age group in South Africa for the year 2000. DESIGN: The analysis follows the World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology. Population-attributable fractions were calculated from South African prevalence data from dietary surveys and applied to the revised South African burden of disease estimates for 2000. A theoretical maximum distribution of 600 g per day for fruit and vegetable intake was chosen. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. SETTING: South Africa. SUBJECTS: Adults >or= 15 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and oesophageal cancer. RESULTS: Low fruit and vegetable intake accounted for 3.2% of total deaths and 1.1% of the 16.2 million attributable DALYs. For both males and females the largest proportion of total years of healthy life lost attributed to low fruit and vegetable intake was for ischaemic heart disease (60.6% and 52.2%, respectively). Ischaemic stroke accounted for 17.8% of attributable DALYs for males and 32.7% for females. For the related cancers, the leading attributable DALYs for men and women were oesophageal cancer (9.8% and 7.0%, respectively) and lung cancer (7.8% and 4.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of fruit and vegetables can make a significant contribution to decreasing mortality from certain diseases. The challenge lies in creating the environment that facilitates changes in dietary habits such as the increased intake of fruit and vegetables. PMID: 17952229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Full-text

Available from: Rosana Norman, Jun 03, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
67 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 01/2015; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.12.022 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Official journal of the South African Academy of Family Practice/Primary Care 08/2014; 50(4):6-12. DOI:10.1080/20786204.2008.10873732
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: There is dearth of data on the nutritional value of food sold in the streets of developing middle-income countries such as South Africa (SA), despite the fact that these foods are commonly sold in urban areas. Many street foods appear to be unhealthy since they are high in saturated fats, trans fats, salt and sugar. Furthermore, they are energy-dense and may contribute to the high prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in SA. Aim: To conduct a situational analysis on the type, nutritional content, and hygienic conditions under which foods are sold by vendors on the streets of Cape Town (CT) and surrounding areas. Methods: All locations where vendors (n=820) sold street food (SF) in the CT and surrounding areas were surveyed. These venues included community centers, market areas, major streets, train and bus stations, and taxi ranks. The interviews were conducted by trained fieldworkers using pre-tested questionnaires. Street foods were categorized in different ways: i) by meal; ii) by single food item or beverage; iii) by the level of processing; iv) by method of cooking (fried, boiled, baked, grilled, roasted and steamed) and v) by packaging. Results: The majority of vendors had more than one food item for sale, with some specializing in specific types of food. It was observed that food items most commonly sold were snacks, such as crisps, candy bars, and biscuits (45%), cooked foods (28%), fruits and vegetables (26%), sweetened beverages or flavored water (6%), raw foods (4%), and tea and coffee (1%). Despite the variation in food items, the majority were classified as being unhealthy (i.e. energy-dense), and prepared and sold under poor hygienic conditions as shown by lack of adequate sanitation facilities, poor storage facilities, and inadequate serving procedures. Conclusion: With the exception of fruit and vegetables, the majority of foods and beverages sold by vendors were not healthy options and were prepared and sold under poor hygienic conditions.
    Fast Foods: Consumption Patterns, Role of Globalization and Health Effects, Edited by Marlin G. Sanford, 01/2014: chapter Foods Currently Sold by Street Food Vendors in the Western Cape, South Africa, Do Not Foster Good Health: pages 6x9 - (NBC-R); Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-697-6