Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in inland areas of south-west Western Australia
ABSTRACT Previously existing sources of data regarding mosquitoes in inland areas of south-west Western Australia are few and qualitative in nature. This is the first attempt to quantitatively investigate mosquito fauna in this region. The existing data are reviewed and compared with the results of the quantitative surveys presented in this paper. Temporal comparisons appear to indicate that mosquito community structure in the region may have changed since the initial surveys in the 1950s from a combination of freshwater-breeding species towards a strong dominance of Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson), a major vector of Ross River virus in southern Australia. It is speculated that this shift may have been brought about by the increasing area and severity of dryland salinity in the region over the last century, and also may increase the potential for Ross River virus disease transmission.
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ABSTRACT: Recent Ross River virus activity prior to the onset of the wet season in the Kimberley region of Western Australia points to an increased dry season mosquito-borne disease risk at Kununurra, compared to other Kimberley towns. This study describes a preliminary investigation into the role of the Ord River Irrigation Area at Kununurra in mosquito production during the dry season. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether the irrigation area has provided the opportunity for year-round breeding of arbovirus vector mosquitoes. A 10-day adult and larval mosquito sampling survey, in August 2003, revealed that mosquito breeding was occurring during the driest month of the year at Kununurra, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes can breed year-round. Importantly, significantly larger numbers and percentage of adult Culex annulirostris, an important disease vector in Australia, were collected within the irrigation area (44.6% of total catch) compared to nearby reference (nonirrigated) breeding sites (9.8%) (mean difference 76.2 per trap per night; 95% CI 38.6, 113.7; P <0.001). Larval Cx. annulirostris were also collected at several sites within the irrigation area, whereas none were collected at reference sites. These results indicate that mosquito breeding associated with anthropogenic environmental changes may be responsible for an increased health risk at the end of the dry season. Mosquito management needs to be given a high priority to ensure this potential health risk is not further exacerbated. Several control strategies to reduce breeding of disease vector mosquitoes are identified, primarily focusing on modification of breeding habitats and alteration of irrigation protocols.EcoHealth 11/2004; 1(4):387-398. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature exists to promote stability and universality of scientific names in taxonomy, using the Linnean binomial system (genus and species), to ensure that the valid name of each species is distinct within each unique genus, according to the rules of priority. In the context of biosystematics, the code does not restrict freedom of taxonomic thought or action. Through the code, nomenclature shows the rank accorded to any formal group of animals (e.g., family or tribe, genus or subgenus, species or subspecies) leaving ample scope for informal cat- egories such as species complexes, phylogenetic clades, and other groups. All classifications and reclassifications above the species level depend on subjective interpretation of taxo- nomic evidence, so uniformity is arrived at through consensus among systematists, and eventually adopted by the rest of the scientific community. Reclassifications that result in changing the names of com- mon pests and vectors, for which there is extensive older literature, inevitably create considerable confusion among teachers, students, and researchers, with communication dif- ficulties and financial implications for republishing education- al materials, keys, catalogs, and management of databases. When reinterpreting the relationships between species and groups of applied importance, systematists have responsibility to limit the impact on nomenclature. Such caution was not exercised when the majority of known species and subgenera of Aedes mosquitoes were transferred to the restored genus Ochlerotatus based on taxonomic characters that few other workers have examined.1 Many investigators adopted the new name combinations without fully understanding the rea- sons. Savage and Strickman2 gave a comprehensive argument against splitting Ochlerotatus from Aedes, whereas Black3 de- fended this step. The latest proposal by Reinert and others4 to elevate dozens of additional subgenera of Aedini to generic status creates a further dilemma for journal editors and au- thors. Mosquito systematists and cladists remain divided on the appropriateness of these changes. Anyone can join the debate at http://wrbu.si.edu/forums. Meanwhile, authors should be aware of the current editorial policy of the Ameri- can Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (AJTMH) on this fluid issue. AJTMH* takes the position that more research (including molecular evidence) and interpretation are needed to develop a consensus on the reclassification of Aedini proposed by Reinert1 and Reinert and others.4 In particular, the nomen- clatural implications need to be separated from their cladistic analyses. Accordingly, AJTMH encourages authors dealing with aedine mosquitoes to maintain usage of the traditional names (http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/main.asp), except when the author has taxonomic reasons for not doing so. AJTMH also will permit authors to adopt the newly proposed classification of Aedini (with 46 genera recognized by Reinert and others4) if they are convinced of the case, e.g., for eleva- tion of any particular genus. In such cases, authors are asked to include the previous binomial combination when the spe- cies is first mentioned in the text of any submitted paper, as in the following examples: Stegomyia albopicta ( Aedes albo- pictus, see Reinert and others4), Ochlerotatus triseriatus ( Aedes triseriatus, see Reinert1).Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 02/2005; 5(2):93-4. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ross River virus is the most common mosquito-borne pathogen in Australia, and approximately 5000 human cases are reported annually. The infection is not fatal, but there is considerable morbidity associated with a debilitating polyarthritis that is the major symptom. The virus is annually active in most regions of Australia, but exists as strains that vary in virulence. Native macropods are thought to be the natural vertebrate hosts, although horses and humans may be involved during epidemic activity, and vertical transmission of the virus occurs in mosquitoes. Different mosquito species are involved as vectors in various regions and in different seasonal and environmental conditions. In coastal areas the saltmarsh mosquitoes Aedes camptorhynchus and Ae. vigilax are the most important vectors in southern and northern regions, respectively, whereas in inland areas Culex annulirostris is the most important vector, although various Aedes species can be involved depending on region and conditions, and the epidemiology of the disease and vector control imperatives vary with circumstance concomitantly.Annual Review of Entomology 02/2002; 47:1-31. · 13.59 Impact Factor