Shepherding AKT and Androgen Receptor by Ack1 Tyrosine Kinase
ABSTRACT Ack1 (also known as ACK, TNK2, or activated Cdc42 kinase) is a structurally unique non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed in diverse cell types. It integrates signals from plethora of ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), for example, MERTK, EGFR, HER2, PDGFR and insulin receptor to initiate intracellular signaling cascades. Ack1 transduces extracellular signals to cytosolic and nuclear effectors such as the protein kinase AKT/PKB and androgen receptor (AR), to promote cell survival and growth. While tyrosine phosphorylation of AR at Tyr267 regulates androgen-independent recruitment of AR to the androgen-responsive enhancers and transcription of AR target genes to drive prostate cancer progression, phosphorylation of an evolutionarily conserved Tyrosine 176 in the kinase domain of AKT is essential for mitotic progression and positively correlates with breast cancer progression. In contrast to AR and AKT, Ack1-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor Wwox at Tyr287 lead to rapid Wwox polyubiquitination followed by degradation. Thus, by its ability to promote tumor growth by negatively regulating tumor suppressor such as Wwox and positively regulating pro-survival factors such as AKT and AR, Ack1 is emerging as a critical player in cancer biology. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the physiological functions of Ack1 signaling in normal cells and the consequences of its hyperactivation in various cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the 8th leading cause of cancer death amongst American women. Most ECs are endometrioid, serous, or clear cell carcinomas, or an admixture of histologies. Serous and clear ECs are clinically aggressive tumors for which alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to search for somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinome of serous and clear cell ECs, because mutated kinases can point to potential therapeutic targets. In a mutation discovery screen, we PCR amplified and Sanger sequenced the exons encoding the catalytic domains of 86 tyrosine kinases from 24 serous, 11 clear cell, and 5 mixed histology ECs. For somatically mutated genes, we next sequenced the remaining coding exons from the 40 discovery screen tumors and sequenced all coding exons from another 72 ECs (10 clear cell, 21 serous, 41 endometrioid). We assessed the copy number of mutated kinases in this cohort of 112 tumors using quantitative real time PCR, and we used immunoblotting to measure expression of these kinases in endometrial cancer cell lines. Overall, we identified somatic mutations in TNK2 (tyrosine kinase non-receptor, 2) and DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1) in 5.3% (6 of 112) and 2.7% (3 of 112) of ECs. Copy number gains of TNK2 and DDR1 were identified in another 4.5% and 0.9% of 112 cases respectively. Immunoblotting confirmed TNK2 and DDR1 expression in endometrial cancer cell lines. Three of five missense mutations in TNK2 and one of two missense mutations in DDR1 are predicted to impact protein function by two or more in silico algorithms. The TNK2P761Rfs*72 frameshift mutation was recurrent in EC, and the DDR1R570Q missense mutation was recurrent across tumor types. This is the first study to systematically search for mutations in the tyrosine kinome in clear cell endometrial tumors. Our findings indicate that high-frequency somatic mutations in the catalytic domains of the tyrosine kinome are rare in clear cell ECs. We uncovered ten new mutations in TNK2 and DDR1 within serous and endometrioid ECs, thus providing novel insights into the mutation spectrum of each gene in EC.BMC Cancer 11/2014; 14(1):884. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-884 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SQCCL) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. Unlike non-smoker adenocarcinoma of the lung, where highly efficient tyrosine kinase inhibitors are available for treating mutant EGFR or ALK-rearranged, no targetable biomarkers are available for SQCCL. The frequent and focal amplification of FGFR1 has generated great expectations in offering new therapeutical options in case of 16-22% of SQCCL patients. Broad 3q chromosome amplification is widely recognized as the most common chromosomal aberration found in SQCCL, where PIK3CA, SOX2, ACK1, PRKCI, TP63, PLD1, ECT2, and others genes are located. Although SOX2 has been postulated as a key regulator of basal stem cells transformation and tumor progression, it seems to confer a good prognosis in SQCCL. It is known that each patient might carry a different length of 3q chromosome amplicon. Thus, we suggest that the number and the biological importance of the genes spanned along each patient's 3q amplicon might help to explain inter-individual outcome variations of the disease and its potential predictive value, especially when relevant oncogenes such as those mentioned above are implicated. Currently, there is no clinical predictive data available from clinical trials. In this review, we have focused on the potential role of FGFR1 in SQCCL prognosis. Additionally, we have explored recently available public data on the comprehensive genomic characterization of SQCCL, in relation to the protein-coding genes that have a strong gene copy number - mRNA correlation in 3q chromosome, that were previously described as potential driver oncogenes or its modifiers in SQCCL.04/2013; 2(2):101-11. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2218-6751.2013.03.05
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ABSTRACT: Amplification of the activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) gene is frequent in gastric cancer (GC). However, little is known about the clinical roles and molecular mechanisms of ACK1 abnormalities in GC. Here, we found that ACK1 protein level and ACK1 phosphorylation at Tyr 284 were frequently elevated in GC and associated with poor patient survival. Ectopic ACK1 expression in GC cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted migration and invasion in vitro, and metastasis in vivo; the depletion of ACK1 induced the opposite effects. We utilized SILAC quantitative proteomics to discover that the level of the cell cycle-related protein ecdysoneless homolog (ECD) was markedly altered by ACK1. Over-expression of ECD promoted EMT, migration and invasion in GC, similar to the effects of ACK1 over-expression. Silencing of ECD completely blocked the augmentation of ACK1 over-expression-induced EMT, migration and invasion. Mechanistically, ACK1 phosphorylated AKT at Thr 308 and Ser 473 and activated the AKT pathway to up-regulate the transcription factor POU2F1, which directly bound to the promoter region of its novel target gene ECD and thus regulated ECD expression in GC cells. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of AKT at Thr 308 and Ser 473 and POU2F1 and ECD levels were positively associated with ACK1 levels in clinical GC specimens. Collectively, we have demonstrated that ACK1 promotes EMT, migration and invasion by activating AKT-POU2F1-ECD signaling in GC cells. ACK1 may be employed as a new prognostic factor and therapeutic target for GC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.The Journal of Pathology 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/path.4515 · 7.33 Impact Factor