Studies have shown an inverse relationship between the consumption of apples and the risk of several cancers. The peels of apple, which have been shown to possess exceptionally high concentrations of antioxidants, are often discarded. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract (APE) in variety of cancer cell types. Our data demonstrated that APE, obtained from organic Gala apples, imparted significant reduction in the viability of a variety of cancer cell lines. Further, our data showed a significant decrease in growth and clonogenic survival of human prostate carcinoma CWR22Rnu1 and DU145 cells and breast carcinoma Mcf-7 and Mcf-7:Her18 cells. Also, the antiproliferative effects of APE were found to be accompanied by a G0-G1 phase arrest of prostate and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, APE treatment resulted in a marked concentration-dependent decrease in the protein levels of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, a marker for proliferation. In addition, APE treatment resulted in a marked increase in maspin, a tumor suppressor protein that negatively regulates cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Our data suggested that APE possesses strong antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, and apple peels should not be discarded from the diet. Detailed mechanistic studies, especially in appropriate in vivo animal models, are needed to further examine the antiproliferative and preventive effects of APE against cancer.
"It has been proposed that anticancer action of apple is due to the presence of vitamin C and pectin, which, during its fermentation, produce butyric acid, a substance used in some experimental drugs to treat cancer . It was also shown that polyphenolic-rich apple extracts may inhibit the activity of cytosolic PKC and have a role in the suppression of human cancer cell growth in vitro  indicating that apple's polyphenols could be of interest in cancer prevention  . Yeast has been extensively used as a model organism for the study of complex phenomena that occur in higher eukaryotes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 08/2012; 2012(4):491759. DOI:10.1155/2012/491759 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"These findings suggest that compounds that promote the expression of maspin will not only suppress tumor formation but will also inhibit metastasis as an added level of protection. Abalone visceral extract and apple peel extract are two examples of nutritional compounds that have been reported to enhance tumor suppression and inhibit metastasis through up-regulation of maspin (Reagan-Shaw et al., 2010; Trapani & Smyth, 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of medicinal plants to help sustain good health and vitality and to reduce inflammation has an ancient and respected
history. Approximately 38% of American adults are using some form of complementary and alternative medicine, resulting in
$34billion dollars spent annually. Herbal medicine compositions offer a potential advantage in that they usually comprise
multiple components that interact and act simultaneously through multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways. These
complex and often synergistic botanicals may also decrease toxicity and increase bioavailability and offer potential as strategies
for cancer management. The quality and content of the active supplement depends on collection, processing and composition
of the raw material and extraction procedures. In addition, despite evidence for usefulness of complex mixtures in cell culture
and pre-clinical animal models, there is no formal regulation of natural supplements by the United States Food and Drug Administration,
however, which creates conflict in the medical community, resulting in reluctance to recommend the use of herbals and alternative
medicines for patient care. Clinicians should be aware of these alternatives given their future potential in oncology and
a potential role in treatment when standard medical cures and treatment have been attempted and there are no clinical trials
available to patients with advanced disease. Further investigation and clinical trials should focus on natural herbs and medicines
in the chemo-prevention of chronic diseases and certain cancers. The advantages and limitations of potential use of various
natural products into mainstream medical practice are discussed.
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