Sex differences in the risk profile and male predominance in silent brain infarction in community-dwelling elderly subjects: the Sefuri brain MRI study.
ABSTRACT Although brain infarction is more common in men, the male predominance of silent brain infarction (SBI) was inconsistent in the earlier studies. This study was to examine the relationship between sex differences in the risk profile and SBI. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and SBI on MRI. We asked all the female participants about the age at natural menopause and parity. SBI was detected in 77 (11.3%) of 680 participants (266 men and 414 women) with a mean age of 64.5 (range 40-93) years. In the logistic analysis, age (odds ratio (OR)=2.760/10 years, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.037-3.738), hypertension (OR=3.465, 95% CI=1.991-6.031), alcohol intake (OR=2.494, 95% CI=1.392-4.466) and smoking (OR=2.302, 95% CI=1.161-4.565) were significant factors concerning SBI. Although SBI was more prevalent among men, this sex difference disappeared on the multivariate model after adjustment for other confounders. In 215 women aged 60 years or older, age at natural menopause, early menopause, duration of menopause, number of children and age at the last parity were not significantly associated with SBI after adjustment for age. Hypertension and age were considered to be the major risk factors for SBI in community-dwelling people. Male predominance in SBI was largely due to higher prevalence of alcohol habit and smoking in men than in women in our population.
- Stroke 01/2001; 32(9):1939-1946. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mm Hg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.014-1.098 per mm Hg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP>or=90 mm Hg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects.Hypertension Research 05/2009; 32(7):586-90. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subclinical findings on MRI of the brain are associated with poorer cognitive and neurological function among older adults. We sought to determine how alcohol consumption is related to these findings. As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, 3660 adults aged 65 years and older underwent MRI of the brain from 1992 to 1994. We excluded 284 participants with a confirmed history of cerebrovascular disease. We assessed self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at the annual clinic visit closest to the date of the MRI and grouped participants into 6 categories: abstainers, former drinkers, <1 drink weekly, 1 to <7 drinks weekly, 7 to <15 drinks weekly, and >/=15 drinks weekly. Neuroradiologists assessed white matter grade, infarcts, ventricular size, and sulcal size in a standardized and blinded manner. We used multivariate regression to control for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. We found a U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and white matter abnormalities. Compared with abstainers, individuals consuming 1 to <7 drinks had an OR of 0.68, and those consuming >/=15 drinks weekly had an OR of 0.95 (p for quadratic term=0.01). Heavier alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of infarcts (OR for >/=15 drinks weekly relative to abstainers 0.59; P for trend=0.004), but larger ventricular size (OR for >/=15 drinks weekly relative to abstainers 1.32; P for trend=0.006) and sulcal size (OR for >/=15 drinks weekly relative to abstainers 1.53; P for trend=0.007). Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of white matter abnormalities and infarcts, thought to be of vascular origin, but with a dose-dependent higher prevalence of brain atrophy on MRI among older adults. The extent to which these competing associations influence overall brain function will require further study.Stroke 09/2001; 32(9):1939-46. · 6.16 Impact Factor