The 1.3 isoform of Na+-Ca 2+ exchanger expressed in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle is less sensitive to KB-R7943.
ABSTRACT The sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a major role in the regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in muscle cells. In this work, we performed force experiments to explore the role of NCX during contraction and relaxation of Cch-stimulated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle strips. This tissue showed low sensitivity to NCX inhibitor KB-R7943 (IC50, 57 +/- 2 microM), although a complete relaxation was obtained by NCX inhibition at 100 microM. Interestingly, relaxation after washing the agonist was prolonged in the absence of external Na(+), whereas washing without Na(+) and in the presence of KB-R7943 resembled control conditions with physiological solution. Altogether, this suggests the reversal of NCX to a Ca(2+) influx mode by the manipulation on the Na(+) gradient, which can be inhibited by KB-R7943. In order to understand the low sensitivity to KB-R7943, we studied the molecular aspects of the NCX expressed in this tissue and found that the isoform of NCX expressed is 1.3, similar to that described in human tracheal smooth muscle. Sequencing revealed that amino acid 19 in exon B is phenylalanine, whereas in its human counterpart is leucine, and that the first amino acid after exon D is aspartate instead of glutamate in humans. Results herein presented are discussed in term of their possible functional implications in the exchanger activity and thus in airway physiology.
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ABSTRACT: The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger gene NCX1 undergoes alternative splicing leading to several isoforms that differ in a small portion of the large cytoplasmic loop. This loop is involved in many regulatory processes of NCX1, including ionic regulation by the transported substrates Na(+) and Ca(2+). High intracellular Ca(2+) can alleviate intracellular Na(+)-dependent inactivation in exon A (NCX1.4)-containing isoforms but not in those containing the mutually exclusive exon B (NCX1.3). Giant excised patches from Xenopus oocytes expressing various NCX1 constructs were used to examine the specific amino acids responsible for these observed regulatory differences. Using a chimeric approach, the region responsible was narrowed down to the small central part of exon A (IDDEEYEKNKTF). Replacing the second aspartic acid of this sequence with arginine (the corresponding amino acid in exon B) in an exon A background completely prevented the effect of Ca(2+) on intracellular Na(+)-dependent inactivation. Mutating the second lysine to cysteine (exon B) had a similar, but only partial, effect. The converse double mutant, but neither single mutation alone, introduced into an exon B background (arginine to aspartic acid and cysteine to lysine) was able to restore the NCX1.4 regulatory phenotype. These data demonstrate that aspartic acid 610 and lysine 617 (using the rat NCX1.4 numbering scheme) are critical molecular determinants of the unique Ca(2+) regulatory properties of NCX1.4.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(37):33957-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is controlled by the Ca2+ and Rho kinase signalling pathways. While the SMC Rho kinase system seems to be reasonably constant, there is enormous variation with regard to the mechanisms responsible for generating Ca2+ signals. One way of dealing with this diversity is to consider how this system has been adapted to control different SMC functions. Phasic SMCs (vas deferens, uterus and bladder) rely on membrane depolarization to drive Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. This depolarization can be induced by neurotransmitters or through the operation of a membrane oscillator. Many tonic SMCs (vascular, airway and corpus cavernosum) are driven by a cytosolic Ca2+ oscillator that generates periodic pulses of Ca2+. A similar oscillator is present in pacemaker cells such as the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and atypical SMCs that control other tonic SMCs (gastrointestinal, urethra, ureter). The changes in membrane potential induced by these cytosolic oscillators does not drive contraction directly but it functions to couple together individual oscillators to provide the synchronization that is a characteristic feature of many tonic SMCs.The Journal of Physiology 10/2008; 586(Pt 21):5047-61. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2002; 976:73-6. · 4.38 Impact Factor