Large animal models of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.
Gene therapy (Impact Factor: 3.1). 08/2010; 17(8):939-48. DOI: 10.1038/gt.2010.47
Source: PubMed


Large animal models have been instrumental in advancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. Here we review the advantages of large animal models, their contributions to the field of HSC gene therapy and recent progress in this field. Several properties of human HSCs including their purification, their cell-cycle characteristics, their response to cytokines and the proliferative demands placed on them after transplantation are more similar in large animal models than in mice. Progress in the development and use of retroviral vectors and ex vivo transduction protocols over the last decade has led to efficient gene transfer in both dogs and nonhuman primates. Importantly, the approaches developed in these models have translated well to the clinic. Large animals continue to be useful to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gene therapy, and dogs with hematopoietic diseases have now been cured by HSC gene therapy. Nonhuman primates allow evaluation of aspects of transplantation as well as disease-specific approaches such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) gene therapy that can not be modeled well in the dog. Finally, large animal models have been used to evaluate the genotoxicity of viral vectors by comparing integration sites in hematopoietic repopulating cells and monitoring clonality after transplantation.

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    • "Even in the context of " humanized " mouse models, long-term engraftment of human cells has been difficult to assess and interspecies differences in homing receptors and immune modulators (e.g., cytokines) create an environment of uncertain relevance to the human clinical setting (Horn et al., 2003; Mestas and Hughes, 2004; Mezquita et al., 2008; Sykes, 2009). Studies also suggest that the histology and time course for allograft rejection in monkeys parallels humans because of similarities in major histocompatibility complex genes and immune ontogeny, while tolerance is much easier to achieve in mice (Cowan et al., 2001; Trobridge and Kiem, 2010; Gibbons and Spencer, 2011). Establishment of a functional immune system has been characterized in mice and humans as a multistage process that occurs in a unique, coordinated, sequential, and temporal sequence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Establishment of a functional immune system has important implications for health and disease, yet questions remain regarding the mechanism, location, and timing of development of myeloid and lymphoid cell compartments. The goal of this study was to characterize the ontogeny of the myeloid-lymphoid system in rhesus monkeys to enhance current knowledge of the developmental sequence of B-cell (CD20, CD79), T-cell (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), dendritic cell (CD205), and macrophage (CD68) lineages in the fetus and infant. Immunohistochemical assessments addressed the temporal and spatial expression of select phenotypic markers in the developing liver, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and bone marrow with antibodies known to cross-react with rhesus cells. CD3 was the earliest lymphoid marker identified in the first trimester thymus and, to a lesser extent, in the spleen. T-cell markers were also expressed midgestation on cells of the liver, spleen, thymus, and in Peyer's patches of the small and large intestine, and where CCR5 expression was noted. A myeloid marker, CD68, was found on hepatic cells near blood islands in the late first trimester. B-cell markers were observed mid-second trimester in the liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow spaces, and occasionally in GALT. By the late third trimester and postnatally, secondary follicles with germinal centers were present in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. These results suggest that immune ontogeny in monkeys is similar in temporal and anatomical sequence when compared to humans, providing important insights for translational studies. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 08/2014; 297(8). DOI:10.1002/ar.22943 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Currently, the clinically most advanced CTX-R gene transfer strategy for myeloprotection applies MGMT point mutants resistant to the specific wild-type MGMT inhibitor O 6 -benzylguanine (BG). MutMGMT gene transfer followed by combined BG/1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1nitrosourea (BCNU) or BG/temozolomide chemotherapy has proven highly efficacious for myeloprotection as well as in vivo selection in murine and several large animal models [8] [9] [10]. Furthermore, a recent clinical trial has demonstrated efficient myeloprotection and in vivo enrichment of genetically modified cells following mutMGMT gene therapy in a cohort of glioblastoma patients demonstrating progression-free survival for more than 2 years in individual patients [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gene transfer of drug resistance () genes can be used to protect the hematopoietic system from the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and this concept recently has been proven by overexpression of a mutant -methylguaninemethyltransferase in the hematopoietic system of glioblastoma patients treated with temozolomide. Given its protection capacity against such relevant drugs as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), gemcitabine, decitabine, or azacytidine and the highly hematopoiesis-specific toxicity profile of several of these agents, cytidine deaminase (CDD) represents another interesting candidate gene and our group recently has established the myeloprotective capacity of gene transfer in a number of murine transplant studies. Clinically, CDD overexpression appears particularly suited to optimize treatment strategies for acute leukemias and myelodysplasias given the efficacy of ara-C (and to a lesser degree decitabine and azacytidine) in these disease entities. This article will review the current state of the art with regard to gene transfer and point out potential scenarios for a clinical application of this strategy. In addition, risks and potential side effects associated with this approach as well as strategies to overcome these problems will be highlighted.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 03/2013; 15(3):239-48. DOI:10.1593/neo.121954 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, it may be beneficial for those in the FA research community to develop a large animal model of FA. While such an undertaking would require a significant financial investment, large animal transplant models such as the existing canine and primate systems have already given us unique insights into human HSC biology and have been invaluable in helping to develop novel therapeutic modalities for other diseases [102]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. FA patients suffer to varying degrees from a heterogeneous range of developmental defects and, in addition, have an increased likelihood of developing cancer. Almost all FA patients develop a severe, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome, which impacts upon the production of all hematopoietic lineages and, hence, is thought to be driven by a defect at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). This hypothesis would also correlate with the very high incidence of MDS and AML that is observed in FA patients. In this paper, we discuss the evidence that supports the role of dysfunctional HSC biology in driving the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, we consider the different model systems currently available to study the biology of cells defective in the FA signaling pathway and how they are informative in terms of identifying the physiologic mediators of HSC depletion and dissecting their putative mechanism of action. Finally, we ask whether the insights gained using such disease models can be translated into potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the hematologic disorders in FA patients.
    Anemia 05/2012; 2012(1):265790. DOI:10.1155/2012/265790
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