Article

G domain dimerization controls dynamin's assembly-stimulated GTPase activity.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 05/2010; 465(7297):435-40. DOI: 10.1038/nature09032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dynamin is an atypical GTPase that catalyses membrane fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The mechanisms of dynamin's basal and assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis are unknown, though both are indirectly influenced by the GTPase effector domain (GED). Here we present the 2.0 A resolution crystal structure of a human dynamin 1-derived minimal GTPase-GED fusion protein, which was dimeric in the presence of the transition state mimic GDP.AlF(4)(-).The structure reveals dynamin's catalytic machinery and explains how assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis is achieved through G domain dimerization. A sodium ion present in the active site suggests that dynamin uses a cation to compensate for the developing negative charge in the transition state in the absence of an arginine finger. Structural comparison to the rat dynamin G domain reveals key conformational changes that promote G domain dimerization and stimulated hydrolysis. The structure of the GTPase-GED fusion protein dimer provides insight into the mechanisms underlying dynamin-catalysed membrane fission.

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    ABSTRACT: Dynamin is a large GTPase that mediates plasma membrane fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Dynamin assembles into polymers on the necks of budding membranes in cells and has been shown to undergo GTP-dependent conformational changes that lead to membrane fission in vitro. Recent efforts have shed new light on the mechanisms of dynamin-mediated fission, yet exactly how dynamin performs this function in vivo is still not fully understood. Dynamin interacts with a number of proteins during the endocytic process. These interactions are mediated by the C-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin binding to SH3 domain-containing proteins. Three of these dynamin-binding partners (intersectin, amphiphysin and endophilin) have been shown to play important roles in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis process. They promote dynamin-mediated plasma membrane fission by regulating three important sequential steps in the process: recruitment of dynamin to sites of endocytosis; assembly of dynamin into a functional fission complex at the necks of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs); and regulation of dynamin-stimulated GTPase activity, a key requirement for fission.
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