An Update on Vitamin E, Tocopherol and Tocotrienol-Perspectives

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Torino, via Pietro Giuria 9, Torino, Italy.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.42). 04/2010; 15(4):2103-13. DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042103
Source: PubMed


Vitamin E, like tocotrienols and tocopherols, is constituted of compounds essential for animal cells. Vitamin E is exclusively synthesized by photosynthetic eukaryotes and other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria. In order to prevent lipid oxidation, the plants mainly accumulate tocochromanols in oily seeds and fruits or in young tissues undergoing active cell divisions. From a health point of view, at the moment there is a great interest in the natural forms of tocochromanols, because they are considered promising compounds able to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system and satisfactory blood cholesterol levels. Some evidence suggests that the potency of the antioxidant effects may differ between natural or synthetic source of tocochromanols (vitamin E).

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    • "Tocotrienols have been reported to exert a protective effect against cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases (Aggarwal et al., 2010). In addition, tocochromanols are considered powerful natural antioxidants; however, tocotrienols are more potent antioxidants than tocopherols due to the presence of conjugated double bonds in the hydrophobic side chain (Colombo, 2010). Further evidence also supports that tocotrienols offer health benefits as they are antioxidant, maintain the cardiovascular system and protect against cancer and other illness (Nesaretnam et al., 2007; Nesaretnam, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to generate a high resolution temporal mapping of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. ‘Koroneiki’) during seventeen successive on-tree developmental stages. Fruit material was collected from the middle of June until the end of January, corresponding to 6-38 weeks after flowering (WAF). Results revealed a variable gene regulation pattern among 6-38 WAF studied and more pronounced levels of differential regulation of gene expression for the first and intermediate genes in the biosynthetic pathway (VTE5, geranylgeranyl reductase, HPPD, VTE2, HGGT and VTE3) compared with the downstream components of the pathway (VTE1 and VTE4). Notably, expression of HGGT and VTE2 genes were significantly suppressed throughout the developmental stages examined. Metabolite analysis indicated that the first and intermediate stages of development (6-22 WAF) have higher concentrations of tocochromanols compared with the last on-tree stages (starting from 24 WAF onwards). The concentration of α-tocopherol (16.150-32.454 mg/100g F.W.) were substantially greater (up to 100-fold) than those of β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols (0.129-0.246 mg/100g F.W., 0.134-0.334 mg/100g F.W., 0.136-0.277 mg/100g F.W., respectively). In regard with tocotrienol content, only γ-tocotrienol was detected. Overall, olive fruits (cv. ‘Koroneiki’) exhibited higher concentrations of vitamin E until 22 WAF as compared with later WAF, concomitant with the expression profile of phytol kinase (VTE5), which could be used as a marker gene due to its importance in the biosynthesis of vitamin E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the complete biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in a fruit tree crop of great horticultural importance such as olive, linking molecular gene expression analysis with analytical tocochromanol content.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 10/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2015.00871 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "In that year, less hull proportion, higher test weight, crude protein, crude fat, b-glucans, total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity were observed. Also, other studies showed that growing conditions affect quantitatively inherited traits and the quality of food grain indices in naked oats such as hull proportion (Doehlert et al., 1999; Ronald et al., 1999), crude protein and b-glucans (Aman, 1987; Biel et al., 2009; Zute et al., 2011), fat content (Brindzova et al., 2008), a-tocopherols (Colombo, 2010), antioxidant activity and phenolic content (Emmons and Peterson, 2001). Significant environmental effect on variation of these oat quality traits was indicated also in a review (Doehlert, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the study were to investigate the variability of oat (Avena sativa L.) grain physical traits and chemical composition and to determine relationships between traits. Field experiments including five hulled oat genotypes were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute for two seasons during 2010-2011. Variation of traits was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 53 - 88%), with the min/max values for 1000 kernel weight 32.4/36.5 g, test weight 470.0/507.9 g·L-1, hull content 215.4/265.6 g·kg-1, crude protein 110.0/124.9 g·kg-1, starch 456.9/483.0 g·kg-1, β-glucans 28.1/36.6 g·kg-1 and crude fat 46.2/60.0 g·kg-1. Oat variety ‘Arta’ had the highest test weight (507 g·L-1) and contents of crude protein (124.9 g·kg-1), β-glucans (36.5 g·kg-1), α-tocopherol (7.8 mg·kg-1), average crude fat (55.5 g·kg-1) and total phenolics (113.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/GAE 100 g-1 DM) in the grain. Expression of traits significantly depended on meteorological conditions in the specific year. In both years of investigation there were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between contents of β-glucans and crude fat, and negative correlation of β-glucans with starch content, total phenolics and antiradical scavenging activity.
    Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences Section B Natural Exact and Applied Sciences 08/2014; 68(3-4). DOI:10.2478/prolas-2014-0019
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    • "Vitamin E is a generic name for both tocopherols and tocotrienols. They are structurally similar but tocotrienols differ from tocopherols in having an unsaturated phytyl side chain (Colombo, 2010). Both tocopherols and tocotrienols comprise a, b, c and d forms, depending on the number and position of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. "
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effects of oil palm vitamin E and phenolics against atherosclerosis, either singly or in combination, were studied in an atherogenic rabbit model. Rabbits were either fed atherogenic diet only (CTR), or atherogenic diet with vitamin E (VIT E), or atherogenic diet with oil palm phenolics (OPP), or atherogenic diet with both vitamin E and oil palm phenolics (VIT E + OPP). Results from lipid profile and antioxidant analyses were not signif-icantly different between groups (p > 0.05). However, fibrous plaques were associated with the CTR group (8.90 ± 5.41%) and these were significantly less (p < 0.05) in the VIT E (2.88 ± 2.01%) and OPP (1.48 ± 4.45%) groups. Fibrous plaques were not detected at all in the VIT E + OPP group. Our findings suggest that oil palm vitamin E and oil palm phenolics individually inhibited atherosclerotic lesion development. However, oil palm vitamin E in combination with oil palm phenolics provided the highest protective effect against devel-opment of atherosclerotic lesions. Ó 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2014; 7. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.01.002 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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