Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D-2 or vitamin D-3 is as effective as an oral supplement in maintaining vitamin D status in adults

Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 06/2010; 91(6):1621-6. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27972
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D has been added to calcium-fortified orange juice. It is unknown whether vitamin D is as bioavailable from orange juice as it is from supplements.
The objective was to compare the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) from orange juice with that from vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) supplements. A secondary aim was to determine which form of vitamin D is more bioavailable in orange juice.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted in healthy adults aged 18-84 y (15-20/group) who received 1000 IU vitamin D(3), 1000 IU vitamin D(2), or placebo in orange juice or capsule for 11 wk at the end of winter.
A total of 64% of subjects began the study deficient in vitamin D (ie, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) concentrations <20 ng/mL). Analysis of the area under the curve showed no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D between subjects who consumed vitamin D-fortified orange juice and those who consumed vitamin D supplements (P = 0.084). No significant difference in serum 25(OH)D(3) was observed between subjects who consumed vitamin D(3)-fortified orange juice and vitamin D(3) capsules (P > 0.1). Similarly, no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D(2) was observed between subjects who consumed vitamin D(2)-fortified orange juice and vitamin D(2) capsules (P > 0.1). No significant overall difference in parathyroid hormone concentrations was observed between the groups (P = 0.82).
Vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) are equally bioavailable in orange juice and capsules.

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Available from: Tai C Chen, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Although vitamins D2 and D3 result in the same active metabolite (calcitriol), several studies have shown that they differ in their effectiveness in raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations – the established marker of vitamin D status.12,18–21 "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term "vitamin D insufficiency" has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic groups, such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities are needed to establish the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent and/or treat asthma.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2013; 7:1003-1013. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S50599 · 3.03 Impact Factor
    • "In general milk, milk products, cereals and margarines are commonly used in the process of fortification with vitamin D. For example in the US, milk and ready-to-eat cereals are the predominant food source of vitamin D[14] while in Finland all retail milk, butter milk and margarines are fortified with vitamin D.[17] Cheese was also found to be suitable for vitamin D fortification.[18] Orange juice has been proved lately to be a potential vehicle for vitamin D fortification and both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally bio-available in orange juice.[19] Bread can also be effective in the process of vitamin D fortification.[20] "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.
    04/2013; 20(1):49-52. DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.108186
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    • "Similarly, infants (mean age, 10 months) who received 2,000 IU (50 µg) daily or 50,000 IU (2,000 µg) vitamin D2 weekly for 6 weeks (throughout the year) experienced an elevation in serum total 25(OH)D concentrations (via a chemiluminescent assay) equivalent to concentrations observed in children who received 2,000 IU vitamin D3 daily (42). Biancuzzo et al. (43) very recently showed in a study of healthy adult men and women (n=105; mean age, 40.3 years) in late winter that, using analysis of the area under the curve, there was no significant difference in serum total 25(OH)D (via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy) between subjects who consumed vitamin D3-fortified orange juice and vitamin D3 capsules. Similarly, no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D2 was observed between subjects who consumed vitamin D2-fortified orange juice and vitamin D2 capsules. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is little doubt that vitamin D deficiency across all age groups in Europe is a problem. Low vitamin D status arises due to limited, if any, dermal synthesis during the winter months at latitudes above 40°N, putting increased importance on dietary supply of the vitamin. However, dietary intakes by most populations are low due to the limited supply of vitamin D-rich foods in the food chain. Thus strategies that effectively address this public health issue are urgently required. It has been emphasized and re-emphasized that there are only a limited number of public health strategies available to correct low dietary vitamin D intake: (1) improving intake of naturally occurring vitamin D-rich foods, (2) vitamin D fortification (mandatory or voluntarily) of food, and (3) vitamin D supplementation. Recent evidence suggests that the levels of vitamin D added to food would need to be high so as to ensure dietary requirements are met and health outcomes optimized. In addition, knowledge of the most effective forms of vitamin D to use in some of these preventative approaches is important. There is still uncertainty in relation to the relative efficacy of vitamin D(2) versus D(3), the two main food derived forms and those used in vitamin D supplements. The major metabolite of vitamin D with biological activity is 1,25(OH)(2)D; however, this is usually used for pharmacological purposes and is not typically used in normal, healthy people. The other major metabolite, 25(OH)D, which has also been used for pharmacological purposes is present in certain foods such as meat and meat products (particularly offal) as well as eggs. This metabolite may have the potential to boost vitamin D status up to five times more effectively that native vitamin D(3) in foods. However, the exact bioactivity of this compound needs to be established.
    Food & Nutrition Research 04/2012; 56. DOI:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5383 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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