Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) is as effective as an oral supplement in maintaining vitamin D status in adults.

Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.5). 06/2010; 91(6):1621-6. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27972
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D has been added to calcium-fortified orange juice. It is unknown whether vitamin D is as bioavailable from orange juice as it is from supplements.
The objective was to compare the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) from orange juice with that from vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) supplements. A secondary aim was to determine which form of vitamin D is more bioavailable in orange juice.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted in healthy adults aged 18-84 y (15-20/group) who received 1000 IU vitamin D(3), 1000 IU vitamin D(2), or placebo in orange juice or capsule for 11 wk at the end of winter.
A total of 64% of subjects began the study deficient in vitamin D (ie, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) concentrations <20 ng/mL). Analysis of the area under the curve showed no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D between subjects who consumed vitamin D-fortified orange juice and those who consumed vitamin D supplements (P = 0.084). No significant difference in serum 25(OH)D(3) was observed between subjects who consumed vitamin D(3)-fortified orange juice and vitamin D(3) capsules (P > 0.1). Similarly, no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D(2) was observed between subjects who consumed vitamin D(2)-fortified orange juice and vitamin D(2) capsules (P > 0.1). No significant overall difference in parathyroid hormone concentrations was observed between the groups (P = 0.82).
Vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) are equally bioavailable in orange juice and capsules.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, "Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children".
    Nutrients 09/2014; 6(9):3601-3623. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Medical Biochemistry 01/2013; 32(1):1-58. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n = 13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P < .05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P < .01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 < 20 ng/mL in children (P < .05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P < .05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P < .05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults.
    Journal of Medicinal Food 10/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014