Mesenchymal stem cells modulate lung injury.
ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cell types, including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and myoblasts, as well as epithelial cells. It has been shown that these cells can be recovered from bone marrow as well as umbilical cord blood, and they can be propagated, stored, and administered to animals and patients in clinical trials. It is clear that the cells engraft in the lung, and several laboratories have demonstrated an ameliorating effect in models of acute injury caused by LPS and in chronic lung injury induced by bleomycin and asbestos. However, it is not at all clear under what conditions these cells must be applied to provide an advantage and when using these cells might cause exacerbation of the lung injury. This brief review focuses on the biology of MSCs in vitro, how the cells have been used in some animal models, and the potential for their use in therapeutic strategies for diseases as diverse as lung cancer and interstitial fibrosis.
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ABSTRACT: The balancing functions of pro/anti-inflammatory mediators of the complex innate responses have been investigated in a variety of experimental inflammatory settings. Annexin-A1 (AnxA1) is one mediator of endogenous anti-inflammation, affording regulation of leukocyte trafficking and activation in many contexts, yet its role in lung pathologies has been scarcely investigated, despite being highly expressed in lung cells. Here we have applied the bleomycin lung fibrosis model to AnxA1 null mice over a 21-day time-course, to monitor potential impact of this mediator on the control of the inflammatory and fibrotic phases. Analyses in wild-type mice revealed strict spatial and temporal regulation of the Anxa1 gene, e.g. up-regulation in epithelial cells and infiltrated granulocytes at day 7, followed by augmented protein levels in alveolar macrophages by day 21. Absence of AnxA1 caused increases in: i) the degree of inflammation at day 7; and ii) indexes of fibrosis (assessed by deposition of hydroxyproline in the lung) at day 7 and 21. These alterations in AnxA1 null mice were paralleled by augmented TGF-β1, IFN-γ and TNF-α generation compared to wild-type mice. Finally, treatment of wild type animals with an AnxA1 peptido-mimetic, given prophylactically (from day 0 to 21) or therapeutically (from day 14 onward), ameliorated both signs of inflammation and fibrosis. Collectively these data reveal a pathophysiological relevance for endogenous AnxA1 in lung inflammation and, more importantly, fibrosis, and may open new insights for the pharmacological treatment of lung fibrosis.BMC Immunology 01/2011; 12:59. · 2.53 Impact Factor