Biomarker expression and risk of subsequent tumors after initial ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosis.

University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. [corrected]
CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment (Impact Factor: 14.07). 05/2010; 102(9):627-37. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djq101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies have failed to identify characteristics of women who have been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and have a high or low risk of subsequent invasive cancer.
We conducted a nested case-control study in a population-based cohort of 1162 women who were diagnosed with DCIS and treated by lumpectomy alone from 1983 to 1994. We collected clinical characteristics and information on subsequent tumors, defined as invasive breast cancer or DCIS diagnosed in the ipsilateral breast containing the initial DCIS lesion or at a regional or distant site greater than 6 months after initial treatment of DCIS (N = 324). We also conducted standardized pathology reviews and immunohistochemical staining for the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, Ki67 antigen, p53, p16, epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ERBB2, HER2/neu oncoprotein), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on the initial paraffin-embedded DCIS tissue. Competing risk models were used to determine factors associated with risk of subsequent invasive cancer vs DCIS, and cumulative incidence survival functions were used to estimate 8-year risk.
Factors associated with subsequent invasive cancer differed from those associated with subsequent DCIS. Eight-year risk of subsequent invasive cancer was statistically significantly (P = .018) higher for women with initial DCIS lesions that were detected by palpation or that were p16, COX-2, and Ki67 triple positive (p16(+)COX-2(+)Ki67(+)) (19.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 18.0% to 21.3%) than for women with initial lesions that were detected by mammography and were p16, COX-2, and Ki67 triple negative (p16(-)COX-2(-)Ki67(-)) (4.1%, 95% CI = 3.4% to 5.0%). In a multivariable model, DCIS lesions that were p16(+)COX-2(+)Ki67(+) or those detected by palpation were statistically significantly associated with subsequent invasive cancer, but nuclear grade was not. Eight-year risk of subsequent DCIS was highest for women with DCIS lesions that had disease-free margins of 1 mm or greater combined with either ER(-)ERBB2(+)Ki67(+) or p16(+)COX-2(-)Ki67(+) status (23.6%, 95% CI = 18.1% to 34.0%).
Biomarkers can identify which women who were initially diagnosed with DCIS are at high or low risk of subsequent invasive cancer, whereas histopathology information cannot.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for up to half of screen-detected breast cancers and thus constitutes a major public health problem. Despite effective current treatment many patients with DCIS are either over- or undertreated because of the paucity of precise models to predict recurrence or progression. The combination of clinical and molecular factors as already applied for invasive disease may help to build such models also for DCIS. We compared 53 DCIS (36.6 %) and 92 (63.4 %) invasive breast cancer cases and found no significant differences in age, receptor status of ER, PR, and HER2, and the use of radiotherapy. Interestingly, the proportion of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) did also not significantly differ between DCIS and invasive cases (p = 0.57). A negative PR status was associated with the detection of DTCs (p = 0.026). We then compared relationships of clinical parameters and biomarkers with patients' prognosis in 43 DCIS and 40 small invasive tumors ≤ 5 mm (T1a). ER negativity was associated with shorter relapse free survival in the complete cohort (p = 0.004) and showed a trend in both subgroups (p = 0.053 for DCIS and p = 0.046 for T1a, respectively). In conclusion, we found markedly similar properties of both DCIS and small invasive breast cancers with respect to the distribution of several parameters as well as to the prognostic value of biomarkers. DCIS with a luminal phenotype seem to be characterized by a favourable prognosis.
    Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 11/2014; 74(11):1016-1022. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer/testis (CT) genes represent a unique class of genes, which are expressed by germ cells, normally silenced in somatic cells, but activated in various cancers. CT proteins can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients and this feature makes them attractive targets for immunotherapy-based approaches. We have previously reported that CTs are relatively commonly expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) negative, high risk carcinomas. In this study, we examined the expression of selected CT genes in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and benign proliferative lesions of the breast. ER negative DCIS were found to be associated with significant CT gene expression together with HER2 positivity and a marked stromal immune response.
    Oncoscience. 01/2014; 1(1):14-20.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The histopathological subtype, nuclear grade and presence or absence of comedonecrosis are established as critical elements in the reporting of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. The aims of this study were to determine the frequencies of morphological subtypes of DCIS, nuclear grade and comedonecrosis; to compare the age of patients with the histopathological characteristics of DCIS, and to assess the agreement of grade between in situ and invasive components in DCIS cases that were associated with invasive carcinoma.Methods We evaluated a series of 403 cases of DCIS, pure or associated with invasive mammary carcinoma, consecutively identified from the histopathology files of the Breast Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2003 to 2008.ResultsDCIS displayed a single growth pattern in most cases (55.1%) and the solid subtype was the most common morphology (42.2% of the total). High-grade DCIS was identified in 293/403 cases (72.7%) and comedonecrosis was present in 222/403 cases (55%). Among DCIS with a single architectural pattern, high grade was more common in the solid subtype (151/168 cases, 89.9%; p¿<¿0.001). Only 32% of tumours with a cribriform pattern had high nuclear grade. Comedonecrosis was more common in the solid morphology than in the cribriform, papillary and micropapillary subtypes (p¿<¿0.001). Patients with high-grade DCIS were younger in relation to patients with low-grade DCIS (p¿=¿0.027) and patients with tumours with comedonecrosis were also younger in comparison to patients with tumours without comedonecrosis (p¿=¿0.003). Fair agreement was observed between in situ and invasive components with regard to grade (weighted kappa¿=¿0.23).Conclusions The high nuclear grade and the presence of comedonecrosis were identified more frequently in younger patients and more often correlated with the solid pattern of DCIS.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Diagnostic Pathology 12/2014; 9(1):227. · 2.41 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014