Article

Pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation

Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, CRISS II, Room 510, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports (Impact Factor: 2.45). 01/2010; 10(1):39-48. DOI: 10.1007/s11882-009-0081-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Advances have been made in defining the mechanisms for the control of allergic airway inflammation in response to inhaled antigens. Several genes, including ADAM33, DPP10, PHF11, GPRA, TIM-1, PDE4D, OPN3, and ORMDL3, have been implicated in the pathogenesis and susceptibility to atopy and asthma. Growing evidence associates asthma with a systemic propensity for allergic T-helper type 2 cytokines. Disordered coagulation and fibrinolysis also exacerbate asthma symptoms. Balance among functionally distinct dendritic cell subsets contributes to the outcome of T-cell-mediated immunity. Allergen-specific T-regulatory cells play a pivotal role in the development of tolerance to allergens and immune suppression. The major emphasis on immunotherapy for asthma during the past decade has been to direct the immune response to a type 1 response, or immune tolerance. In this review, we discuss the current information on the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation and potential immunotherapy, which could be beneficial in the treatment of airway inflammation, allergy, and asthma.

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    • "Under conditions of chronic inflammation in allergic asthma, neutrophils along with eosinophils are the first cells to be recruited to inflammatory sites (Baggiolini, 1998; Agrawal and Shao, 2010). Neutrophils, which are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood, use two basic strategies to eliminate microorganisms (Guimaraes- Costa et al., 2012). "
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    • "The pathogenesis of the allergic inflammation involves multiple mediators, cell types, and pathways [2]. Although the skewing of Th2 cytokines is considered the key pathogenic factor for asthma [3], oxidative stress may also be a crucial contributor to asthma development. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that levels of oxidative stress are increased both in children and in adults with asthma, not only in their lungs but also in the blood [4]. "
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