Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: the first decade.
ABSTRACT The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) drastically changed with the introduction of imatinib mesylate, a Bcr-Abl1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in 1998. By directly targeting this leukemogenic protein kinase, imatinib affords patients with CML sustained chromosomal remissions, which translate into prolonged survival. However, there has been concern over the emergence of resistance to imatinib, and some patients fail to respond or are intolerant of imatinib therapy because of untoward toxicity. This has spurred interest in developing novel TKIs to overcome the mechanisms of resistance that lead to treatment failure-most importantly, Bcr-Abl1 kinase domain mutations. Two of these second-generation TKIs, nilotinib and dasatinib, are approved worldwide for the treatment of CML after imatinib failure or intolerance. Although these agents are active, they fail in many patients because of the development of highly resistant mutations such as the T315I, against which several novel agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review provides an account of the progress made in the field of TKI therapy for CML over the past decade.
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ABSTRACT: The inhibition of protein kinases has gained general acceptance as an effective approach to treat a wide range of cancers. However, in many cases, prolonged administration of kinase inhibitors often leads to acquired resistance, and the therapeutic effect is subsequently diminished. The wealth of recent studies using biochemical, kinetic, and structural approaches have revealed the molecular basis for the clinically observed resistance. In this review, we highlight several of the most common molecular mechanisms that lead to acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors observed with the cAbl (cellular form of the Abelson leukemia virus tyrosine kinase) and the type III receptor tyrosine kinase cKit, including a newly identified mechanism resulting from accelerated kinase activation caused by mutations in the activation loop. Strategies to overcome the loss of drug sensitivity that represents a challenge currently facing the field and the emerging approaches to circumvent resistance are discussed.Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 05/2011; 46(4):295-309. DOI:10.3109/10409238.2011.578612 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA damage is a key factor both in the evolution and treatment of cancer. Genomic instability is a common feature of cancer cells, fuelling accumulation of oncogenic mutations, while radiation and diverse genotoxic agents remain important, if imperfect, therapeutic modalities. Cellular responses to DNA damage are coordinated primarily by two distinct kinase signaling cascades, the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways, which are activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA respectively. Historically, these pathways were thought to act in parallel with overlapping functions; however, more recently it has become apparent that their relationship is more complex. In response to DSBs, ATM is required both for ATR-Chk1 activation and to initiate DNA repair via homologous recombination (HRR) by promoting formation of single-stranded DNA at sites of damage through nucleolytic resection. Interestingly, cells and organisms survive with mutations in ATM or other components required for HRR, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, but at the cost of genomic instability and cancer predisposition. By contrast, the ATR-Chk1 pathway is the principal direct effector of the DNA damage and replication checkpoints and, as such, is essential for the survival of many, although not all, cell types. Remarkably, deficiency for HRR in BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient tumors confers sensitivity to cisplatin and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), an enzyme required for repair of endogenous DNA damage. In addition, suppressing DNA damage and replication checkpoint responses by inhibiting Chk1 can enhance tumor cell killing by diverse genotoxic agents. Here, we review current understanding of the organization and functions of the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways and the prospects for targeting DNA damage signaling processes for therapeutic purposes.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2010; 108:73-112. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-380888-2.00003-0 · 4.26 Impact Factor