Treatment of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine/The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Behavioral Health Center, Suite 400, 3440 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.24). 04/2010; 12(2):104-10. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-010-0092-z
Source: PubMed


We could not have predicted that HIV/AIDS would become one of our greatest public health challenges worldwide when the first cases were identified in the 1980s. More than 22 million people have died from the disease, and HIV is now the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States among 15- to 24-year-olds. At the beginning of this pandemic, most HIV infections of youth were acquired congenitally. Prenatal screening of pregnant women, early detection, and antiretroviral therapies have reduced mother-to-child transmission. Children born with HIV infections are now young adults living with HIV, while other adolescents are acquiring HIV primarily through high-risk behaviors. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and poor health outcomes have been recognized among adults. Few studies have examined these factors among youth. We review what is known about psychiatric syndromes among HIV-positive youth, and their treatments.

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    • "Mirtazapine has been helpful for sleep and in promoting weight gain although controlled trial data is still lacking. Similar to other groups with depression, careful monitoring of the emergence of suicidal ideation is warranted (Benton, 2010). The prevalence of bipolar disorders in HIV-positive youth has not been systematically studied and recommendations for treatment are based on current pediatric and adult treatment guidelines. "
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    ABSTRACT: This publication is intended for professionals training or practicing in mental health and not for the general public. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IACAPAP. This publication seeks to describe the best treatments and practices based on the scientific evidence available at the time of writing as evaluated by the authors and may change as a result of new research. Readers need to apply this knowledge to patients in accordance with the guidelines and laws of their country of practice. Some medications may not be available in some countries and readers should consult the specific drug information since not all dosages and unwanted effects are mentioned. Organizations, publications and websites are cited or linked to illustrate issues or as a source of further information. This does not mean that authors, the Editor or IACAPAP endorse their content or recommendations, which should be critically assessed by the reader. Websites may also change or cease to exist. ©IACAPAP 2013. This is an open-access publication under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License. Use, distribution and reproduction in any medium are allowed without prior permission provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. Send comments about this book or chapter to Suggested citation: Benton TD, Lachman A, Seedat S. HIV/AIDS. Addressing the mental health needs of affected children and families.. In Rey JM (ed), IACAPAP e-Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions 2013. Conflict of interest: research grants from the National Institutes of Health and from several pharmaceutical companies (Lundbeck, GlaxoSmithKline, and Astra-Zeneca), speaker honoraria from Pfizer, Servier, Dr Reddy's, Sanofi-Aventis, and Eli-Lilly. 'Amelia, 13, (right) and her sister Mamdiuana, 7, inside the door of their house near Mombane (Mozambique). The sisters now live alone, with the support of their community after both of their parents died of AIDS. Community support for HIV/AIDS orphans has become a priority for many communities. Leaders quickly realized that the effects of HIV related illness are felt by entire communities -not only those who are infected with the disease. As a result, community responses to the pandemic are necessary.' Image and text: Andy Clark, PhotoSensitive
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