Department of Psychiatry, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine/The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Behavioral Health Center, Suite 400, 3440 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
We could not have predicted that HIV/AIDS would become one of our greatest public health challenges worldwide when the first cases were identified in the 1980s. More than 22 million people have died from the disease, and HIV is now the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States among 15- to 24-year-olds. At the beginning of this pandemic, most HIV infections of youth were acquired congenitally. Prenatal screening of pregnant women, early detection, and antiretroviral therapies have reduced mother-to-child transmission. Children born with HIV infections are now young adults living with HIV, while other adolescents are acquiring HIV primarily through high-risk behaviors. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and poor health outcomes have been recognized among adults. Few studies have examined these factors among youth. We review what is known about psychiatric syndromes among HIV-positive youth, and their treatments.
"Mirtazapine has been helpful for sleep and in promoting weight gain although controlled trial data is still lacking. Similar to other groups with depression, careful monitoring of the emergence of suicidal ideation is warranted (Benton, 2010). The prevalence of bipolar disorders in HIV-positive youth has not been systematically studied and recommendations for treatment are based on current pediatric and adult treatment guidelines. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical question--"Which treatment(s) for which patients with what set of subgrouping characteristics working by what mechanism(s)?"--rests at the heart of differential therapeutics. Experimentally, this question reduces to a test of how well we can predict the outcome of treatment using the treatment conditions plus other moderating and mediating variables. Reflecting the discussions held at a recent National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) conference on psychosocial treatments, and using pediatric anxiety disorders as a case in point, we discuss the problem of prediction in treatment outcome studies from the standpoint of definition of terms, using the general linear model of prediction. We also outline types of studies that may be useful in testing potential predictors, and put forward a possible matrix of predictor variables as currently implemented in an NIMH-funded treatment outcome study of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conclude by making specific suggestions for implementing a broader approach to the study of predictors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder) anxiety disorders in the pediatric population- separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia and others- are arguably the most common psychiatric disorders in this age group. Anxiety disorders, in addition to being common, also significantly impair the affected child at home, school, and with peers. A small developing evidence base suggests the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the pharmacological treatment of choice for pediatric non-OCD anxiety disorders. In clinical trials, SSRIs are often very effective in reducing symptoms and improving functioning and generally well tolerated. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) review of the safety of antidepressants in the pediatric population suggest a small, but significant, increased relative risk for suicidality adverse events on antidepressant versus placebo. Despite the apparent increased risk, the larger magnitude of benefit of the SSRIs for pediatric non-OCD anxiety disorders compared to depression suggests the benefit/risk ratio for anxiety disorders is more favorable than that for depression. This paper will review available studies on the treatment of non-OCD childhood anxiety disorders with antidepressants, including the SSRIs, and discuss pertinent safety issues.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 03/2006; 16(1-2):171-9. DOI:10.1089/cap.2006.16.171 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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