In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop®) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

Department of Parasitology, Heinrich Heine University, D-40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Parasitology Research (Impact Factor: 2.1). 07/2010; 107(2):417-23. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1882-2
Source: PubMed


The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

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    • "Many formulations deriving from neem seed oil show antifeedancy, fecundity suppression, ovicidal and larvicidal activity, insect growth regulation, and/or repellence against many arthropod pests of medical and veterinary importance (Semmler et al. 2009; Mehlhorn 2011; Benelli et al. 2015b). For instance, the concentrate extract of neem seeds [e.g., MiteStop, developed by the University spin-off company Alpha-Biocare (Düsseldorf, Germany)] is effective against ticks, house dust mites, cockroaches, raptor bugs, cat fleas, bed bugs (Schmahl et al. 2010), biting and bloodsucking lice (Al-Quraishy et al. 2011, 2012; Abdel-Ghaffar et al. 2012), Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs (Abdel-Ghaffar et al. 2008), poultry mites (Abdel-Ghaffar et al. 2009; Locher et al. 2010), and beetle larvae parasitizing the plumage of poultry (Walldorf et al. 2012). Other advantages arising from the use of neem-based products are no induction of resistance, due to their multiple modes of action against pests and low toxicity rates against vertebrates (Benelli et al. 2015a, b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.
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    • "Several essential oils and extracts have been shown to pose acaricidal activity against D. gallinae (Kim et al. 2004; Abdel-Ghaffar et al. 2009; George et al. 2009a, b, c). Locher et al. (2010) described a neem product, MiteStop®, as an effective botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite. Based on LD50 values, Kim et al. (2004) reported that acaricidal activity of some plant extract preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (a synthetic pesticide). "

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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites.
    Parasitology Research 07/2010; 107(2):433-7. DOI:10.1007/s00436-010-1958-z · 2.10 Impact Factor
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