S100A10 regulates plasminogen-dependent macrophage invasion.
ABSTRACT The plasminogen activation system plays an integral role in the migration of macrophages in response to an inflammatory stimulus, and the binding of plasminogen to its cell-surface receptor initiates this process. Although previous studies from our laboratory have shown the importance of the plasminogen receptor S100A10 in cancer cell plasmin production, the potential role of this protein in macrophage migration has not been investigated. Using thioglycollate to induce a peritoneal inflammatory response, we demonstrate, for the first time, that compared with wild-type (WT) mice, macrophage migration across the peritoneal membrane into the peritoneal cavity in S100A10-deficient (S100A10(-/-)) mice was decreased by up to 53% at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Furthermore, the number of S100A10-deficient macrophages that infiltrated Matrigel plugs was reduced by 8-fold compared with their WT counterpart in vivo. Compared with WT macrophages, macrophages from S100A10(-/-) mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in plasmin-dependent invasion across a Matrigel barrier and a 45% reduction in plasmin generation in vitro. This loss in plasmin-dependent invasion was in part the result of a decreased generation of plasmin and a decreased activation of pro-MMP-9 by S100A10-deficient macrophages. This study establishes a direct involvement of S100A10 in macrophage recruitment in response to inflammatory stimuli.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Septic shock is the most common cause of death in intensive care units due to an aggressive inflammatory response that leads to multiple organ failure. However, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance phenomenon (a nonreaction to LPS), is also often described. Neither the inflammatory response nor the tolerance is completely understood. In this work, both of these responses were analyzed using microarrays in zebrafish. Fish that were 4 or 6 days postfertilization (dpf) and received a lethal dose (LD) of LPS exhibited 100% mortality in a few days. Their transcriptome profile, even at 4 dpf, resembled the profile in humans with severe sepsis. Moreover, we selected 4-dpf fish to set up a tolerance protocol: fish treated with a nonlethal concentration of Escherichia coli LPS exhibited complete protection against the LD of LPS. Most of the main inflammatory molecules described in mammals were represented in the zebrafish microarray experiments. Additionally and focusing on this tolerance response, the use of cyclodextrins may mobilize cholesterol reservoirs to decrease mortality after a LD dose of LPS. Therefore, it is possible that the use of the whole animal could provide some clues to enhance the understanding of the inflammatory/tolerance response and to guide drug discovery.Zebrafish 09/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The plasminogen (Plg)/plasmin (Pla) system is associated with a variety of biological activities beyond the classical dissolution of fibrin clots, including cell migration, tissue repair, and inflammation. Although the capacity of Plg/Pla to induce cell migration is well defined, the mechanism underlying this process in vivo is elusive. In this study, we show that Pla induces in vitro migration of murine fibroblasts and macrophages (RAW 264.7) dependent on the MEK/ERK pathway and by requiring its proteolytic activity and lysine binding sites. Plasmin injection into the pleural cavity of BALB/c mice induced a time-dependent influx of mononuclear cells that was associated with augmented ERK1/2 and IκB-α phosphorylation and increased levels of CCL2 and IL-6 in pleural exudates. The inhibition of protease activity by using a serine protease inhibitor leupeptin or two structurally different protease-activated receptor-1 antagonists (SCH79797 and RWJ56110) abolished Pla-induced mononuclear recruitment and ERK1/2 and IκB-α phosphorylation. Interestingly, inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway abolished Pla-induced CCL2 upregulation and mononuclear cell influx. In agreement with a requirement for the CCL2/CCR2 axis to Pla-induced cell migration, the use of a CCR2 antagonist (RS504393) prevented the Plg/Pla-induced recruitment of mononuclear cells to the pleural cavity and migration of macrophages at transwell plates. Therefore, Pla-induced mononuclear cell recruitment in vivo was dependent on protease-activated receptor-1 activation of the MEK/ERK/NF-κB pathway, which led to the release of CCL2 and activation of CCR2.The Journal of Immunology 08/2014; · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We applied global gene expression arrays, quantitative real-time PCR, immunostaining, and functional assays to untangle the role of High Mobility Groups proteins (HMGs) in human Osteoarthritis (OA)-affected cartilage. Bioinformatics analysis showed increased mRNA expression of Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern (DAMPS): HMGA, HMGB, HMGN, SRY, LEF1, HMGB1, MMPs, and HMG/RAGE-interacting molecules (spondins and S100A4, S100A10, and S100A11) in human OA-affected cartilage as compared with normal cartilage. HMGB2 was down-regulated in human OA-affected cartilage. Immunohistological staining identified HMGB1 in chondrocytes in the superficial cartilage. Cells of the deep cartilage and subchondral bone showed increased expression of HMGB1 in OA-affected cartilage. HMGB1 was expressed in the nucleus, cytosol, and extracellular milieu of chondrocytes in cartilage. Furthermore, HMGB1 was spontaneously released from human OA-affected cartilage in ex vivo conditions. The effects of recombinant HMGB1 was tested on human cartilage and chondrocytes in vitro. HMGB1 stimulated mRNA of 2 NFκB gene enhancers (NFκB1 and NFκB2), 16 CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, CCL2, CCL20, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL3L3, CCL4, CCL4L1, CCL4L2, CCL5, CCL8, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL6) by ≥10-fold. Furthermore, HMGB1 and IL-1β and/or tumor necrosis factor α (but not HMGI/Y) also significantly induced inducible nitric oxide synthase, NO, and interleukin (IL)-8 production in human cartilage and chondrocytes. The recombinant HMGB1 utilized in this study shows properties that are similar to disulfide-HMGB1. The differential, stage and/or tissue-specific expression of HMGB1, HMGB2, and S100A in cartilage was associated with regions of pathology and/or cartilage homeostasis in human OA-affected cartilage. Noteworthy similarities in the expression of mouse and human HMGB1 and HMGB2 were conserved in normal and arthritis-affected cartilage. The multifunctional forms of HMGB1 and S100A could perpetuate damage-induced cartilage inflammation in late-stage OA-affected joints similar to sterile inflammation. The paracrine effects of HMGB1 can induce chemokines and NO that are perceived to change cartilage homeostasis in human OA-affected cartilage.DNA and Cell Biology 06/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor