I'm No Longer Torn After Choice: How Explicit Choices Implicitly Shape Preferences of Odors

Laboratory for the Study of Emotion Elicitation and Expression, Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Psychological Science (Impact Factor: 4.43). 04/2010; 21(4):489-93. DOI: 10.1177/0956797610364115
Source: PubMed


Several studies have shown that preferences can be strongly modulated by cognitive processes such as decision making and choices. However, it is still unclear whether choices can influence preferences of sensory stimuli implicitly. This question was addressed here by asking participants to evaluate odors, to choose their preferred odors within pairs, to reevaluate the odors, and to perform an unexpected memory test. Results revealed, for the first time in the study of olfaction, the existence of postchoice preference changes, in the sense of an overvaluation of chosen odors and a devaluation of rejected ones, even when choices were forgotten. These results suggest that chemosensory preferences can be modulated by explicit choices and that such modulation might rely on implicit mechanisms. This finding rules out any explanation of postchoice preference changes in terms of experimental demand and strongly challenges the classical cognitive-dissonance-reduction account of such preference changes.

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Available from: Géraldine Coppin, Jan 08, 2015
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    • "In this regards the concept of consumer's preferences can be identified as a judgment that is evaluated, in a way, of liking or disliking an object (Coppin, 2010; Lichtenstein, 2006). So tourist's preference depends on the options of meals that are offered by the restaurants, in a way, that increased their motivation to choose that particular restaurant in the destination where they actually visit (Park, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to examine in what extent tourists’ preferences, and their satisfaction relates to their purchase intention from a restaurant. The study also considers the mediating role of service quality among the relationships. In order to test the hypothesized model, this study used a sample of 180 tourists’ who were visited in Malaysia. The instruments were developed through the measures adapted from previous scholarly works. In addition, structural equation modeling was applied to test the proposed model. The results show that the relationships among the variables are all significant except one. Moreover, the mediating effect of service quality in between tourists’ preference and purchase intention is partial. On the other hand, the role of service quality as mediator in between the relationship between tourists’ satisfaction and their purchase intention from a restaurant were full rather partial. This study offers valuable insights for restaurant managers to aware of and to deliver consistent and attractive services to their customers by considering their preference and satisfaction through appropriate service quality components. This research contributes to the literature on tourism marketing by examining their preferences and satisfaction in choosing a restaurant. Above all, this research also used service quality as a mediating variable in between the relationship among tourist’s preferences, satisfaction towards their intention to purchase from a restaurant which is scared in the tourism marketing literature under the Malaysian tourism industry context.
    the Tourism and Hospitality International Conference (THIC 2014), Malaysia; 11/2014
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    • "Alternatively, a persistent impact of choice can be interpreted in terms of implicit choice memory [10], [11], [18]. As suggested by Lieberman and his colleagues [11], choice-induced preference change can rely on an automatic process that does not necessarily require explicit memory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral choice alters one's preference rather than simply reflecting it. This effect to fit preferences with past choice, is known as "choice-induced preference change." After making a choice between two equally attractive options, one tends to rate the chosen option better than they initially did and/or the unchosen option worse. The present study examined how behavioral choice changes subsequent preference, using facial images for the choice options as well as blind choice techniques. Participants rated their facial preference for each face, and chose between two equally preferred faces and subsequently rated their facial preference. Results from four experiments demonstrated that randomly chosen faces were more preferred only after participants were required to choose "a preferred face," (in Experiment 1) but not "an unpreferred face," (in Experiment 2) or "a rounder face" (in Experiment 3). Further, preference change was still observed after participants were informed that choices were actually random (in Experiment 4). Our findings provide new and important implications characterizing the conditions under which random choice changes preference, and show that people are tempted to make a biased evaluation even after they know that they did not make the choice for themselves.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72071. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072071 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The original paper describing the methodological flaw was made available to the public as a working paper in 2008 and attracted the attention of researchers (see Chen and Risen, 2009; Sagarin and Skowronski, 2009a,b). However, despite the fact that their critique could potentially undermine the conclusions of any study that uses the paradigm, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies using the paradigm continue to be published without addressing the critique (Sharot et al., 2009, 2010a; Coppin et al., 2010, 2012; Imada and Kitayama, 2010; Lee and Schwarz, 2010; West et al., 2010; Harmon-Jones et al., 2011; Jarcho et al., 2011; Qin et al., 2011; Kimel et al., 2012; Kitayama et al., 2013). Furthermore, although some researchers have already provided evidence for the existence of choice-included preference change using new paradigms or modifications of the free-choice paradigm, some of them are not sufficiently compelling, as detailed later. "
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    ABSTRACT: Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the "free-choice paradigm." However, Chen and Risen (2010) pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.
    Frontiers in Psychology 02/2013; 4:41. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00041 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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