Review: Structural determinants of pattern recognition by lung collectins.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts, USA.
Innate Immunity (Impact Factor: 2.46). 06/2010; 16(3):143-50. DOI: 10.1177/1753425910368716
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Host defense roles for the lung collectins, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), were first suspected in the 1980s when molecular characterization revealed their sequence homology to the acute phase reactant of serum, mannose-binding lectin. Surfactant protein A and SP-D have since been shown to play diverse and important roles in innate immunity and pulmonary homeostasis. Their location in surfactant ideally positions them to interact with air-space pathogens. Despite extensive structural similarity, the two proteins show many functional differences and considerable divergence in their interactions with microbial surface components, surfactant lipids, and other ligands. Recent crystallographic studies have provided many new insights relating to these observed differences. Although both proteins can participate in calcium-dependent interactions with sugars and other polyols, they display significant differences in the spatial orientation, charge, and hydrophobicity of their binding surfaces. Surfactant protein D appears particularly adapted to interactions with complex carbohydrates and anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylinositol. By contrast, SP-A shows features consistent with its preference for lipid ligands, including lipid A and the major surfactant lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Current research suggests that structural biology approaches will help to elucidate the molecular basis of pulmonary collectin-ligand recognition and facilitate development of new therapeutics based upon SP-A and SP-D.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a mammalian C-type lectin, is the primary innate inhibitor of influenza A virus (IAV) in the lung. Interactions of SP-D with highly branched viral N-linked glycans on hemagglutinin (HA), an abundant IAV envelope protein and critical virulence factor, promote viral aggregation and neutralization through as yet unknown molecular mechanisms. Two truncated human SP-D forms, wild-type (WT) and double mutant D325A+R343V, representing neck and carbohydrate recognition domains are compared in this study. Whereas both WT and D325A+R343V bind to isolated glycosylated HA, WT does not inhibit IAV in neutralization assays; in contrast, D325A+R343V neutralization compares well with that of full-length native SP-D. To elucidate the mechanism for these biochemical observations, we have determined crystal structures of D325A+R343V in the presence and absence of a viral nonamannoside (Man9). On the basis of the D325A+R343V-Man9 structure and other crystallographic data, models of complexes between HA and WT or D325A+R343V were produced and subjected to molecular dynamics. Simulations reveal that whereas WT and D325A+R343V both block the sialic acid receptor site of HA, the D325A+R343V complex is more stable, with stronger binding caused by additional hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with HA residues. Furthermore, the blocking mechanism of HA differs for WT and D325A+R343V because of alternate glycan binding modes. The combined results suggest a mechanism through which the mode of SP-D-HA interaction could significantly influence viral aggregation and neutralization. These studies provide the first atomic-level molecular view of an innate host defense lectin inhibiting its viral glycoprotein target.
    Biochemistry 11/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years significant progress has been made to improve particle deposition in the lung. However, the development of strategies to overcome the air-blood lung barrier is still needed. The combination of complex in vitro models and sophisticated particulate carriers are promising as a strategy by which that goal could be achieved. In this review we discuss currently available in vitro lung models, including some recent tissue-engineering approaches, as well as the challenges associated to implement such complex in vitro systems. Furthermore, we discuss available carrier technologies, often based on nanotechnology, to target specific regions of the lungs and to overcome the respective biological barriers, ideally resulting in safe and effective delivery to the desired pulmonary destination.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 05/2014; · 12.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a protective cellular mechanism in response to various stresses, including sepsis. Sepsis is defined as systemic inflammation by infection. Surfactant protein A and D (SP-A and SP-D) are involved in host defense, regulation of inflammation, and homeostasis, but their roles in the autophagic activity and relevant gene expression in sepsis are unclear. In this study, mice lacking SP-A and SP-D (SP-A/D KO mice) and background-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent either cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery. The results showed that SP-A/D KO mice had lower mortality than WT mice in CLP sepsis. Liver tissues showed marked pathological changes in both septic SP-A/D KO and WT mice 24 hrs after CLP treatment; and quantitative analysis of liver histopathology revealed significant difference between septic SP-A/D and septic WT mice. SP-A/D KO mice had higher basal and sepsis-induced level of autophagy than WT mice (p < 0.05), as judged by Western blot and electron microscopic analyses. The expression of 84 autophagy-related genes revealed differential basal and sepsis-induced gene expression between SP-A/D KO and WT mice. The expression increased in three genes and decreased in four genes in septic WT mice, as compared to septic SP-A/D KO mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, differential responses to sepsis between SP-A/D KO and WT mice were found in six signaling pathways related to autophagy and apoptosis. Therefore, enhanced autophagic activity improves the survival of septic SP-A/D KO mice through the regulation of liver autophagy/apoptosis-related gene expression and signaling pathway activation.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; 231(2):127-138. · 1.37 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014