Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation
ABSTRACT Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration.
- SourceAvailable from: Jessié Gutierres[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are a group of natural phenolic compounds responsible for the colour to plants and fruits. These compounds might have beneficial effects on memory and have antioxidant properties. In the present study we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins in an animal model of cognitive deficits, associated to Alzheimer's disease, induced by scopolamine. We evaluated whether anthocyanins protect the effects caused by SCO on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (of rats. We used 4 different groups of animals: control (CTRL), anthocyanins treated (ANT), scopolamine-challenged (SCO), and scopolamine+anthocyanins (SCO+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the animals were SCO injected (1mg/kg; IP) and were performed the behavior tests, and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in SCO group, but ANT treatment prevented this impairment of memory (P<0.05). The ANT treatment per se had an anxiolitic effect. AChE activity was increased in both in cortex and hipoccampus of SCO group, this effect was significantly attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). SCO decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in hippocampus, and ANT was able to significantly (P<0.05) prevent these effects. No significant alteration was found on NOx levels among the groups. In conclusion, the ANT is able to regulate cholinergic neurotransmission and restore the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and also prevented memory deficits caused by scopolamine administration.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.12.006 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current status and likely future directions of complexes of V(V/IV), Cr(III), Mo(VI), W(VI), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Mn(III) as potential oral drugs against type 2 diabetes are reviewed. We propose a unified model of extra- and intracellular mechanisms of anti-diabetic efficacies of V(V/IV), Mo(VI), W(VI), and Cr(III), centred on high-oxidation-state oxido/peroxido species that inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involved in insulin signalling. The postulated oxidative mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Cr(III) via carcinogenic Cr(VI/V) (which adds to safety concerns) is consistent with recent clinical trials on Cr(III) picolinate, where activity was apparent only in patients with poorly controlled diabetes (high oxidative stress), and the correlation between the anti-diabetic activities and ease of oxidation of Cr(III) supplements and their metabolites in vivo. Zn(II) and Cu(II) anti-diabetics act via different mechanisms and are unlikely to be used as specific anti-diabetics due to their diverse and unpredictable biological activities. Hence, future research directions are likely to centre on enhancing the bioavailability and selectivity of V(V/IV), Mo(VI), or W(VI) drugs. The strategy of potentiating circulating insulin with metal ions has distinct therapeutic advantages over interventions that stimulate the release of more insulin, or use insulin mimetics, because of many adverse side-effects of increased levels of insulin, including increased risks of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.Dalton Transactions 07/2011; 40(44):11675-86. DOI:10.1039/c1dt10380f · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common cause of dementia in North America. Despite 30+ years of intense investigation, the field lacks consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic AD, and therefore we still do not know the best strategies for treating and preventing this debilitating and costly disease. However, growing evidence supports the concept that AD is fundamentally a metabolic disease with substantial and progressive derangements in brain glucose utilization and responsiveness to insulin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF] stimulation. Moreover, AD is now recognized to be heterogeneous in nature, and not solely the end-product of aberrantly processed, misfolded, and aggregated oligomeric amyloid-beta peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau. Other factors, including impairments in energy metabolism, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin and IGF resistance, and insulin/IGF deficiency in the brain should be incorporated into all equations used to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD. Herein, the contributions of impaired insulin and IGF signaling to AD-associated neuronal loss, synaptic disconnection, tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid-beta accumulation, and impaired energy metabolism are reviewed. In addition, we discuss current therapeutic strategies and suggest additional approaches based on the hypothesis that AD is principally a metabolic disease similar to diabetes mellitus. Ultimately, our ability to effectively detect, monitor, treat, and prevent AD will require more efficient, accurate and integrative diagnostic tools that utilize clinical, neuroimaging, biochemical, and molecular biomarker data. Finally, it is imperative that future therapeutic strategies for AD abandon the concept of uni-modal therapy in favor of multi-modal treatments that target distinct impairments at different levels within the brain insulin/IGF signaling cascades.Current Alzheimer research 01/2012; 9(1):35-66. DOI:10.2174/156720512799015037 · 3.80 Impact Factor