Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration.
"Of particular interest, procyanidins as well as resveratrol are considered to be one of the bioactive components of the red wine responsible for the cardioprotective effects, known as " French Paradox " (Nishizuka et al., 2011). If this is the case, these protective effects conferred by polyphenols of red wine might be related to the prevention of age-related cognitive deficits, since it is well recognized that populations which consume anthocyanins enriched fruits have health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging (Krikorian et al., 2010a, 2012). Furthermore, shock motivated learning tests, particularly in those that investigate the effect of drugs given before the acquisition test, is whether pharmacological treatments affect locomotor activities or motivational aspects of learning, such as shock sensitivity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are a group of natural phenolic compounds responsible for the colour to plants and fruits. These compounds might have beneficial effects on memory and have antioxidant properties. In the present study we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins in an animal model of cognitive deficits, associated to Alzheimer's disease, induced by scopolamine. We evaluated whether anthocyanins protect the effects caused by SCO on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (of rats. We used 4 different groups of animals: control (CTRL), anthocyanins treated (ANT), scopolamine-challenged (SCO), and scopolamine+anthocyanins (SCO+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the animals were SCO injected (1mg/kg; IP) and were performed the behavior tests, and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in SCO group, but ANT treatment prevented this impairment of memory (P<0.05). The ANT treatment per se had an anxiolitic effect. AChE activity was increased in both in cortex and hipoccampus of SCO group, this effect was significantly attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). SCO decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in hippocampus, and ANT was able to significantly (P<0.05) prevent these effects. No significant alteration was found on NOx levels among the groups. In conclusion, the ANT is able to regulate cholinergic neurotransmission and restore the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and also prevented memory deficits caused by scopolamine administration.
International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; 33(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.12.006 · 2.58 Impact Factor
"In some studies, chromium supplementation has been found to improve glucose regulation  and attenuate weight gain  ; to improve appetite and mood dysregulation in depressed patients    ; to reduce food intake, hunger, and fat cravings in overweight women who crave carbohydrates , and to improve cognitive inhibition in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Food cravings     and negative affect   have been identified as instrumental triggers for binge eating, and high disinhibition is common among individuals who binge eat   and is associated with poor treatment outcome. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromium treatment has been shown to improve mood, appetite, and glucose regulation in various psychiatric and medical patient populations. The authors propose that chromium may be useful in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED).
Twenty-four overweight adults with BED were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial and randomly assigned to receive either 1000mcg chromium/day ("high dose"; n=8) or 600mcg chromium/day ("moderate dose"; n=9) as chromium picolinate or placebo (n=7). Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate mean change in binge frequency and related psychopathology, weight, symptoms of depression, and fasting glucose.
Fasting glucose was significantly reduced in both chromium groups compared to the placebo group; similarly, numerically, but not significantly, greater reductions in binge frequency, weight, and symptoms of depression were observed in those treated with chromium versus placebo, although statistical power was limited in this pilot trial. For fasting glucose, the findings suggest a dose response with larger effects in the high dose compared to moderate dose group.
These initial findings support further larger trials to determine chromium's efficacy in maintaining normal glucose regulation, reducing binge eating and related psychopathology, promoting modest weight loss, and reducing symptoms of depression in individuals with BED. Studies designed to link the clinical effects of chromium with changes in underlying insulin, serotonin, and dopamine pathways may be especially informative. If efficacious, chromium supplementation may provide a useful, low-cost alternative to or augmentation strategy for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which have partial efficacy in BED. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904306.
Journal of psychosomatic research 07/2013; 75(1):36-42. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.03.092 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current status and likely future directions of complexes of V(V/IV), Cr(III), Mo(VI), W(VI), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Mn(III) as potential oral drugs against type 2 diabetes are reviewed. We propose a unified model of extra- and intracellular mechanisms of anti-diabetic efficacies of V(V/IV), Mo(VI), W(VI), and Cr(III), centred on high-oxidation-state oxido/peroxido species that inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involved in insulin signalling. The postulated oxidative mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Cr(III) via carcinogenic Cr(VI/V) (which adds to safety concerns) is consistent with recent clinical trials on Cr(III) picolinate, where activity was apparent only in patients with poorly controlled diabetes (high oxidative stress), and the correlation between the anti-diabetic activities and ease of oxidation of Cr(III) supplements and their metabolites in vivo. Zn(II) and Cu(II) anti-diabetics act via different mechanisms and are unlikely to be used as specific anti-diabetics due to their diverse and unpredictable biological activities. Hence, future research directions are likely to centre on enhancing the bioavailability and selectivity of V(V/IV), Mo(VI), or W(VI) drugs. The strategy of potentiating circulating insulin with metal ions has distinct therapeutic advantages over interventions that stimulate the release of more insulin, or use insulin mimetics, because of many adverse side-effects of increased levels of insulin, including increased risks of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
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