fMRI study of effect on brain activity according to stimulation method at LI11, ST36-painful pressure and acupuncture stimulation of same acupoints
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess differences in brain responses between pressure and acupuncture stimulation at the same acupoint using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
A total of 10 healthy right-handed volunteers were studied.
fMRI was performed with two different paradigms; namely, pressure and acupuncture stimulation at acupuncture points LI11 and ST36 on the left. fMRI data were analyzed using SPM2.
In comparison with the left LI11 pressure stimulation, both sides of the parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, left side of thalamus, and right side of posterior cingulate regions were more activated by the left LI11 acupuncture stimulation. In comparison with the left ST36 pressure stimulation, the secondary motor cortex, limbic system (cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate), primary visual cortex, pons, and medulla regions were more activated by left ST36 acupuncture stimulation. In comparison with the left ST36 pressure stimulation, both side of BA 4 and BA 6 were more activated by the LI11 pressure stimulation. In comparison with the left LI11 acupuncture stimulation, left BA 6, BA 8, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were more activated by the left ST36 acupuncture stimulation.
In conclusion, brain signal activation patterns according to the stimulation methods and acupoints were observed to differ. Acupuncture stimulation activated more regions than pressure at the same acupoint. In particular, acupuncture stimulation activated the limbic system, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and ACC.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2013; 2013:804696. DOI:10.1155/2013/804696 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that acupuncture may be efficacious for insomnia. Instead of needling, acupressure, reflexology, and auricular acupressure are procedures involving physical pressure on acupoints or reflex areas. These variants of acupuncture are gaining popularity, perhaps due to their non-invasive nature. A systematic review has therefore been conducted to examine their efficacy and safety for insomnia. Two independent researchers searched five English and 10 Chinese databases from inception to May 2010. Forty RCTs were identified for analysis. Only 10 studies used sham controls, four used double-blind design, nine studies scored three or more by the Jadad scale, and all had at least one domain with high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of the moderate-quality RCTs found that acupressure as monotherapy fared marginally better than sham control. Studies that compared auricular acupressure and sham control showed equivocal results. It was also found that acupressure, reflexology, or auricular acupressure as monotherapy or combined with routine care was significantly more efficacious than routine care or no treatment. Owing to the methodological limitations of the studies and equivocal results, the current evidence does not allow a clear conclusion on the benefits of acupressure, reflexology, and auricular acupressure for insomnia.Sleep Medicine 07/2012; 13(8):971-84. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.003 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of continuation methods has been shown to be more effective than standard Newton-Raphson-based methods in finding the operating point(s) of circuits with convergence problems. In this paper a new algorithm that searches for multiple operating points automatically, with no user intervention required, is shown to be a direct extension of the use of a particular continuation method. This algorithm, which exploits the asymmetrical properties of nonlinear mappings that describe multistable circuits, has been implemented into a program which automatically finds multiple (in most cases, all) operating points of a circuit. A number of challenging examples are givenCircuits and Systems, 1998. ISCAS '98. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on; 01/1998