Endothelial dysfunction: the common consequence in diabetes and hypertension.

Institute of Vascular Medicine, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, and School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.83). 04/2010; 55(4):300-7. DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181d7671c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the initiation of cellular events evolving into the development of vascular complications in diabetes and hypertension. Diminished production and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and other vasoprotective factors and/or the exaggerated production of proinflammatory and vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, reactive oxygen species, and cyclooxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated vascular tone which contributes to hypertension, vascular, and cardiac remodeling, culminating in microvascular, macrovascular, and renal damages. Specific therapies targeting reactive oxygen species using antioxidants and inhibitors of the rennin-angiotensin system or increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity might assist to reverse endothelial dysfunction and thus reduce the related cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetes and hypertension.

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