Genetic determinants of drug-induced cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and drug-induced cholestasis are two clinically important forms of acquired cholestatic liver disease. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms of acquired cholestasis has recently made considerable progress by the identification of canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as likely targets for these forms of cholestasis. Cholestasis of pregnancy is linked to estrogen and progesterone metabolites. These metabolites have been shown to impair the bile salt export pump (BSEP) function by an indirect mechanism. In addition, genetic variants (as well as mutants) of the genes coding for the phosphatidylcholine translocator MDR3 and BSEP and for the farnesoid X receptor, which is critical in the transcriptional activation of MDR3 ( ABCB4) and BSEP ( ABCB11) have been associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. The pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury encompasses a wide spectrum of mechanisms, some of which are still poorly understood. BSEP is now known to be subject to drug inhibition in susceptible patients. Information on genetic factors rendering individuals susceptible to inhibition of BSEP by drugs or their metabolites is still scarce. Besides rare mutations that have been linked to drug-induced cholestasis, the common p.V444A polymorphism of BSEP has been identified as a potential risk factor. In this review, the authors summarize key concepts of physiology of bile formation, diagnostic principles to indentify these forms of acquired cholestasis, as well as pathogenetic mechanisms leading to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy or drug-induced cholestasis. In addition, they review the current knowledge on genetic susceptibility factors for these two forms of cholestasis.
Article: Acute and fulminant hepatitis induced by flutamide: case series report and review of the literature.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug, commonly used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. This drug may induce various degrees of liver injury, including acute liver failure (ALF), with further need for liver transplantation. Here, we present a report of 10 consecutive patients seen in a period of 14 years, with acute liver toxicity induced by flutamide (in most cases severe hepatotoxicity): 3 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 75 and 29 years old, respectively. All men received flutamide as treatment of advanced prostate carcinoma and they developed hepatotoxicity without ALF, and three months after withdrawal of the drug, they recovered completely. In contrast, in 7 young female with liver toxicity caused by flutamide as treatment of various hyperandrogenic conditions (acne and hirsutism), ALF was observed in 5 patients, all of them requiring urgent liver transplantation, with excellent outcome and survival in 4 of them. Based on the above, we believe that flutamide treatment should be preferentially avoided in young female patients with benign pathologies, or if it is used, patients should be warned of its potential severe complications. Also, serial liver tests should be closely monitored and, in case of elevations, the drug should be immediately withdrawn.Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 01/2011; 10(1):93-8. · 1.81 Impact Factor