Mammalian carboxylesterase 3: comparative genomics and proteomics.

Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA.
Genetica (Impact Factor: 1.75). 07/2010; 138(7):695-708. DOI: 10.1007/s10709-010-9438-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT At least five families of mammalian carboxylesterases (CES) catalyse the hydrolysis or transesterification of a wide range of drugs and xenobiotics and may also participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester metabolism. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for CES3 genes and encoded proteins using data from several mammalian genome projects. Mammalian CES3 genes were located within a CES gene cluster with CES2 and CES6 genes, usually containing 13 exons transcribed on the positive DNA strand. Evidence is reported for duplicated CES3 genes for the chimp and mouse genomes. Mammalian CES3 protein subunits shared 58-97% sequence identity and exhibited sequence alignments and identities for key CES amino acid residues as well as extensive conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for human CES1. The human genome project has previously reported CES3 mRNA isoform expression in several tissues, particularly in colon, trachea and in brain. Predicted human CES3 isoproteins were apparently derived from exon shuffling and are likely to be secreted extracellularly or retained within the cytoplasm. Mouse CES3-like transcripts were localized in specific regions of the mouse brain, including the cerebellum, and may play a role in the detoxification of drugs and xenobiotics in neural tissues and other tissues of the body. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the mammalian CES3 family of genes which were related to but distinct from other mammalian CES gene families.

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Available from: Roger Holmes, Jul 31, 2015
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    • "Given the reported role of the N-glycosylated carbohydrate group contributing to CES1 stability and maintaining catalytic efficiency (Kroetz et al. 1993), the Nglycosylation sites predicted for other human CES subunits may perform similar functions or indeed may serve new functions specific to a particular CES family. Predicted secondary structures for human CES2 (Holmes et al. 2009b), CES3 (Holmes et al. 2010), CES4A (Holmes et al. 2009a), and CES5A (Holmes et al. 2008a) sequences were compared with those reported for human CES1, and similar a-helix b-sheet structures were observed for all of the CES subunits examined (Bencharit et al. 2003, 2006) (Fig. 1). This was especially apparent near key residues or functional domains such as the a-helix within the N-terminal signal peptide, the b-sheet and a-helix structures near the active site Ser221 (human CES1) and ''Z-site'' (Glu354/Gly356, respectively), the a-helices bordering the ''side door'' site, and the a-helix containing the ''gate'' residue (Phe550 for human CES1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and "CES" (human) and "Ces" (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding "P" and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species.
    Mammalian Genome 10/2010; 21(9-10):427-41. DOI:10.1007/s00335-010-9284-4 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospho-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (phospho-NSAIDs) are novel NSAID derivatives with improved anticancer activity and reduced side effects in preclinical models. Here, we studied the metabolism of phospho-NSAIDs by carboxylesterases and assessed the impact of carboxylesterases on the anticancer activity of phospho-NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo. The expression of human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) and intestinal carboxylesterase (CES2) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells resulted in the rapid intracellular hydrolysis of phospho-NSAIDs. Kinetic analysis revealed that CES1 is more active in the hydrolysis of phospho-sulindac, phospho-ibuprofen, phospho-naproxen, phospho-indomethacin, and phospho-tyrosol-indomethacin that possessed a bulky acyl moiety, whereas the phospho-aspirins are preferentially hydrolyzed by CES2. Carboxylesterase expression leads to a significant attenuation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of phospho-NSAIDs, suggesting that the integrity of the drug is critical for anticancer activity. Benzil and bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (BNPP), two carboxylesterase inhibitors, abrogated the effect of carboxylesterases and resensitized carboxylesterase-expressing cells to the potent cytotoxic effects of phospho-NSAIDs. In mice, coadministration of phospho-sulindac and BNPP partially protected the former from esterase-mediated hydrolysis, and this combination more effectively inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric xenografts in nude mice (57%) compared with phospho-sulindac alone (28%) (p = 0.037). Our results show that carboxylesterase mediates that metabolic inactivation of phospho-NSAIDs, and the inhibition of carboxylesterases improves the efficacy of phospho-NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo.
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