Dual-color, break-apart FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma and alveolar soft part sarcoma.
ABSTRACT Both Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) are characterized by various translocations disrupting chromosome Xp11.2, which result in gene fusions involving the TFE3 transcription factor gene. Diagnostic tools to detect translocations involving the TFE3 gene on chromosome X would be valuable in the evaluation of these tumors. We developed a dual-color, break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to identify the chromosomal break point in paraffin-embedded tissue. This assay was validated using 4 cases of Xp11.2 RCC [proven by karyotype and/or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)], 2 cases of ASPS (proven by karyotype or RT-PCR), the UOK109 cell line carrying the inv(X) (p11;q12), and several negative controls (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic). This break-apart FISH assay is a relatively quick procedure for detecting Xp11.2 RCC and ASPS translocations and can be applied to archival paraffin-embedded tissue.
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ABSTRACT: Much progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) over the last decade, with the development of agents that block the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The incorporation of these agents into treatment algorithms has been the result of carefully conducted clinical trials leading to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and subsequent adoption as the current standard of care. These trials, however, were dominated by patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and little data are currently available on the treatment of non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC). nccRCC encompasses a biologically heterogeneous group of kidney tumors that portend very diverse prognoses and responses to therapy. This review is a pathway based approach that highlights the current systemic treatment strategies for metastatic nccRCC.Frontiers in Oncology 04/2015; 5. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2015.00067
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ABSTRACT: Xp11.2-translocation renal carcinoma (TRCC) is suspected when a renal carcinoma occurs in young patients, patients with a prior history of exposure to chemotherapy and when the neoplasm has morphological features suggestive of that entity. We retrieved 20 renal tumours (from 17,500 archival cases) of which morphology arose suspicion for TRCC. In nine cases, TFE3 translocation was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis. In 9 of the remaining 11 TRCC-like cases (7 male, 4 female, aged 22-84 years), material was available for further study. The morphological spectrum was diverse. Six tumours showed a mixture of cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm in tubular, acinar and papillary architecture. One case was high grade with epithelioid, spindle cell and sarcomatoid areas. Another showed tubular, solid, and papillary areas and foci containing spindle cells reminiscent of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma. The third showed dyscohesive nests of large epithelioid and histiocytoid cells in a background of dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. By immunohistochemistry, keratin AE1/AE3 was diffusely positive in three tumours, while CK7 strongly stained one tumour and another focally and weakly. CD10 and Pax8 were expressed by eight, AMACR and vimentin by seven, CA-IX by four and TFE3 and cathepsin K by two tumours. Of the two TFE3-positive tumours, one showed polysomy of chromosome 7 and the other of 17; they were VHL normal and diagnosed as unclassifiable RCC. Of the seven TFE3-negative tumours, three showed polysomy of 7/17 and VHL abnormality and were diagnosed as combined clear cell RCC/papillary RCC. One TFE3-negative tumour with normal 7/17 but LOH 3p (VHL abnormality) was diagnosed as clear cell RCC. One TFE3-negative tumour with polysomy 7/17 but normal VHL was diagnosed as papillary RCC, and two with normal chromosomes 7/17 and VHL gene were considered unclassifiable. As morphological features and IHC are heterogeneous, TRCC-like renal tumours can only be sub-classified accurately by multi-parameter molecular-genetic analysis.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 12/2014; 466(3). DOI:10.1007/s00428-014-1702-7 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been recognized as a rare and mostly nonaggressive tumor (NAT). The criteria for distinguishing aggressive tumors (AT) from NATs are not well established. A total of 6 cases were selected for the study. Five cases of t(6;11) RCCs behaved nonaggressively, and 1 was carcinoma with aggressive behavior. The tumors were analyzed morphologically using immunohistochemistry and by molecular-genetic methods. The specimen of aggressive t(6;11) RCC was from a 77-year-old woman who died of the disease 2.5 months after diagnosis. The specimens of nonaggressive t(6;11) RCCs were from 3 women and 2 men whose ages range between 15 and 54 years. Follow-up was available in all cases (2.5 months-8 years). The tumor size ranged from 3 to 14 cm in nonaggressive t(6;11) RCC. In the aggressive carcinoma, the tumor size was 12 cm. All tumors (6/6) were well circumscribed. Aggressive t(6;11) RCC was widely necrotic. Six (100%) of 6 all tumors displayed a solid/alveolar architecture with occasional tubules and pseudorosettes. Pseudopapillary formations lined by bizarre polymorphic cells were found focally in the aggressive t(6;11) RCC case. Mitoses, though rare, were found as well. All cases (AT and NAT) were positive for HMB-45, Melan-A, Cathepsin K, and cytokeratins. CD117 positivity was seen in 4 of 5 NATs, as well as in the primary and metastatic lesions of the AT. mTOR was positive in 2 of 5 NATs and vimentin in 4 of 5 NATs. Vimentin was negative in the primary lesion of the AT, as well as in the metastasis found in the adrenal gland. Translocation t(6;11)(Alpha-TFEB) or TFEB break was detected in 4 of 5 NATs and in the AT case. Aggressive tumor showed amplification of TFEB locus. Losses of part of chromosome 1 and chromosome 22 were found in 1 of 5 NATs and in the AT. Conclusions: (1) Aggressive t(6;11) RCCs generally occur in the older population in comparison with their indolent counterparts. (2) In regard to the histologic findings in ATs, 3 of 5 so far published cases were morphologically not typical for t(6;11) RCC. Of the 3 cases, 2 cases lacked a small cell component and 1 closely mimicked clear cell–type RCC. (3) Necroses were only present in aggressive t(6;11) RCC. (4) Amplification of TFEB locus was also found only in the aggressive t(6;11) RCC.Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 11/2014; 18(6):351-357. DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2014.10.002 · 1.11 Impact Factor