Genetic evidence for the involvement of lipid metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and presents a great burden to sufferers and to society. The genetics of rare Mendelian forms of AD have been central to our understanding of AD pathogenesis for the past twenty years and now the genetics of the common form of the disease in the elderly is beginning to be unravelled by genome-wide association studies. Four new genes for common AD have been revealed in the past year, CLU, CR1, PICALM and BIN1. Their possible involvement in lipid metabolism and how that relates to AD is discussed here.
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ABSTRACT: PICALM, a clathrin adaptor protein, plays important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in all cell types. Recently, genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in PICALM gene as genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We analysed by western blotting with several anti-PICALM antibodies the pattern of expression of PICALM in human brain extracts. We found that PICALM was abnormally cleaved in AD samples and that the level of the uncleaved 65-75 kDa full-length PICALM species was significantly decreased in AD brains. Cleavage of human PICALM after activation of endogenous calpain or caspase was demonstrated in vitro. Immunohistochemistry revealed that PICALM was associated in situ with neurofibrillary tangles, co-localising with conformationally abnormal and hyperphosphorylated tau in LOAD, familial AD and Down syndrome cases. PHF-tau proteins co-immunoprecipitated with PICALM. PICALM was highly expressed in microglia in LOAD. These observations suggest that PICALM is associated with the development of AD tau pathology. PICALM cleavage could contribute to endocytic dysfunction in AD.Acta Neuropathologica 04/2013; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression affected neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol turnover, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity.EMBO Molecular Medicine 04/2013; 5(4):608-25. · 7.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and molecular findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this association is not well understood. Using linear mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), a lipid binding protein involved with fatty acid metabolism and lipid transport, amyloid-beta (Abeta), phospho-tau, and longitudinal MRI-based measures of brain atrophy among 295 non-demented and demented older individuals. Across all participants, we found a significant association of CSF HFABP with longitudinal atrophy of the entorhinal cortex and other AD-vulnerable neuroanatomic regions. However, we found that the relationship between CSF HABP and brain atrophy was significant only among those with low CSF Abeta1--42 and occurred irrespective of phospho-tau181p status. Our findings indicate that Abeta-associated volume loss occurs in the presence of elevated HFABP irrespective of phospho-tau. This implicates a potentially important role for fatty acid binding proteins in Alzheimer's disease neurodegeneration.Molecular Neurodegeneration 10/2013; 8(1):39. · 4.01 Impact Factor