Article

Propionibacterium acnes infection induces upregulation of inflammatory genes and cytokine secretion in prostate epithelial cells

Department of Clinical Microbiology/Virology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 04/2010; 10(1):126. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-126
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The immune stimulating bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a frequent colonizer of benign and malignant prostate tissue. To understand the pathogenesis of the earliest phase of this infection, we examined the P. acnes triggered immune response in cultivated prostate epithelial cells.
Prostate epithelial cells are triggered to secrete IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF when infected with P. acnes. The secretion of cytokines is accompanied by NFkappaB related upregulation of the secreted cytokines as well as several components of the TLR2-NFkappaB signaling pathway.
P. acnes has potential to trigger a strong immune reaction in the prostate glandular epithelium. Upon infection of prostate via the retrograde urethral route, the induced inflammatory reaction might facilitate bacterial colonization deeper in the prostate tissue where persistent inflammation may impact the development of prostate diseases as hyperplasia and/or malignancy.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jan Olsson, Jun 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
110 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic inflammation may be induced by P. acnes infection.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51434. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051434 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an "enabling characteristic" of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal flora of the skin, oral cavity, large intestine, the conjunctiva and the external ear canal. Although primarily recognized for its role in acne, P. acnes is an opportunistic pathogen, causing a range of postoperative and device-related infections. These include infections of the bones and joints, mouth, eye and brain. Device-related infections include those of joint prostheses, shunts and prosthetic heart valves. P. acnes may play a role in other conditions, including inflammation of the prostate leading to cancer, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome, sarcoidosis and sciatica. If an active role in these conditions is established there are major implications for diagnosis, treatment and protection. Genome sequencing of the organism has provided an insight into the pathogenic potential and virulence of P. acnes.
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 12/2011; 9(12):1149-56. DOI:10.1586/eri.11.137 · 3.06 Impact Factor