Propionibacterium acnes infection induces upregulation of inflammatory genes and cytokine secretion in prostate epithelial cells
ABSTRACT The immune stimulating bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a frequent colonizer of benign and malignant prostate tissue. To understand the pathogenesis of the earliest phase of this infection, we examined the P. acnes triggered immune response in cultivated prostate epithelial cells.
Prostate epithelial cells are triggered to secrete IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF when infected with P. acnes. The secretion of cytokines is accompanied by NFkappaB related upregulation of the secreted cytokines as well as several components of the TLR2-NFkappaB signaling pathway.
P. acnes has potential to trigger a strong immune reaction in the prostate glandular epithelium. Upon infection of prostate via the retrograde urethral route, the induced inflammatory reaction might facilitate bacterial colonization deeper in the prostate tissue where persistent inflammation may impact the development of prostate diseases as hyperplasia and/or malignancy.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jan Olsson, May 28, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been reported to play a major role in prostate carcinogenesis. Several bacterial infections can lead to prostate inflammation; however, until now, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms linking inflammation to carcinogenesis have remained unclear. We therefore investigated the initiation of inflammation induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection in human prostate epithelial cells using an in vitro culture system in which human androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer epithelial cells were infected with C. trachomatis serovar L2. The expression levels of VEGF, ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα, CCL5, CCL2 and iNOS inflammation-related genes, as well as genes involved in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway (TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and MyD88), were evaluated at the mRNA level in infected PC-3 cells 24 hours after infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. The expression levels of components of the NF-κB pathway (p65 and IκBα) were evaluated at the mRNA level in infected PC-3 cells at different time points (1, 6, 12 and 24 hours) after infection. The expression levels of inflammation-related genes, components of the Toll-like receptor pathway and genes involved in NF-κB activation were analyzed in infected and uninfected cells using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We detected a significant increase (p <0.001) in inflammation-related cytokines in infected PC-3 cells. During infection, PC-3 cells elicited a proinflammatory response, as shown by NF-κB activation, TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation and the increased expression of inflammation-related genes. Furthermore, we observed significant upregulation of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VEGF, which are two biomarkers correlated with tumor progression and immune system evasion. The present study suggests that human prostate cancer epithelial cells are susceptible to C. trachomatis infection and upregulate proinflammatory markers during infection.Molecular and Cellular Probes 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mcp.2014.01.006 · 1.86 Impact Factor
International Journal of Medical Microbiology 08/2010; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an "enabling characteristic" of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.