Brain volume regulation in response to changes in osmolality.
ABSTRACT Hypoosmolality and hyperosmolality are relatively common clinical problems. Many different factors contribute to the substantial morbidity and mortality known to occur during states of altered osmotic homeostasis. The brain is particularly vulnerable to disturbances of body fluid osmolality. The most serious complications are associated with pathological changes in brain volume: brain edema during hypoosmolar states and brain dehydration during hyperosmolar states. Studies in animals have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved with brain adaptation to osmotic stresses, and indicate that it is a complex process involving transient changes in water content and sustained changes in electrolyte and organic osmolyte contents. Appreciation of the nature of the adaptation process, and conversely the deadaptation processes that occur after recovery from hypoosmolality and hyperosmolality, enables a better understanding of the marked variations in neurological sequelae that characterize hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar states, and provides a basis for more rational therapies.
- The American journal of emergency medicine 04/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevated tear osmolarity is one of the key pathological factors in dry eye leading to ocular discomfort associated with damage to the ocular surface and inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of the organic osmolyte, betaine, to act as an osmoprotectant against hypertonic stress-induced human corneal epithelial cell shrinkage and apoptosis using in vitro cell culture models. Human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells exposed to culture medium for 16 h at 300 mOsm (isotonic) or 500 mOsm (hyperosmotic) in the presence or absence of betaine (5 or 10 mM) were evaluated for cell volume changes; cell viability; and apoptosis. Betaine (10 mM) ameliorated hyperosmotically-induced reduction of cell volume (from 27% reduction to 11%) and resulted in increased mitochondrial activity (by 17%) and an increase in viable cell numbers (by 12%) compared to controls (exposure to hyperosmotic medium without betaine). Hyperosmotically shocked HCLE cells in the presence of betaine (10 mM) halved the number of damaged cells (apoptotic / necrotic) compared to cells in the absence of betaine. The presence of betaine (at 5 or 10 mM) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3/7 and release of TNF-α was also reduced by 34% or 55% after exposure of HCLE to 500 mOsm in the presence of 5 or 10 mM betaine, respectively. Using polyclonal antibody against Betaine/GABA transporter 1 (BGT-1), we detected the presence of BGT-1 in HCLE. We demonstrated the transport of betaine was facilitated by increased osmolarity. In conclusion, betaine stabilized corneal epithelial cell volume under hyperosmotic stress and limited hyperosmotic stress-induced HCLE apoptosis.Experimental Eye Research 12/2012; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thrombin effect increasing swelling-induced glutamate efflux was examined in cultured cortical astrocytes, cerebellar granule neurons (CGN), hippocampal and cortical neurons. Hypotonic glutamate efflux (monitored by D-[(3)H]aspartate) from cortical astrocytes was increased by thrombin (5 U/mL) to reach 16 % of the cell pool in 5 min. Thrombin had lower effects in CGN, and marginal effects in hippocampal and cortical neurons. These differences were related to the magnitude of thrombin-evoked cytosolic calcium rise. The protease-activated receptor 1 is expressed in astrocytes and neurons. In astrocytes exposed to chemical ischemia (sodium iodoacetate plus sodium azide) D-[(3)H]aspartate release showed a first phase (20-40 min) of initial low efflux which progressively increases; and a second phase (40-60 min) of larger efflux coincident with cell swelling. Efflux at the first phase was 52 % inhibited by the glutamate transporter blocker DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic-acid (TBOA) and 11 % by the volume-sensitive pathway blocker phloretin. At the second phase, efflux was reduced 52 and 38 % respectively, by these blockers. In CGN D-[(3)H]aspartate efflux increased sharply and then decreased. This efflux was 32 % reduced by calcium omission, 46 % by TBOA and 32 % by 4-[(2-butyl-6,7dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy] butanoic-acid. Thrombin enhanced this release by 32 %. Ischemic treatment increased astrocyte mortality from 4 % in controls to 39 and 61 % in ischemia and ischemia plus thrombin, respectively. Cell death was prevented by phloretin. CGN viability was unaffected by the treatment. These results suggest that coincidence of swelling and thrombin during ischemia elevates extracellular glutamate prominently from astrocyte efflux, which may endanger neurons in vivo.Neurochemical Research 04/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor