Pressurised hot water extraction followed by simultaneous derivatization and headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of aliphatic primary amines in sewage sludge.
ABSTRACT In this paper we describe an environmentally friendly and sensitive method for the determination of ten primary amines in sewage sludge. The method is based on pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by simultaneous derivatization with pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFBAY) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and subsequent gas-chromatography ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS-MS) analysis. The influence of the main factors on the PHWE of sludge was optimized by a central composite design. For all species the optimal conditions were water at pH 4 as the extracting solvent, an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and an extraction time of 15 min. The separation and detection of the ten amines by GC-IT-MS-MS took just 10 min and the entire process took approximately 1 h. Repeatability and reproducibility between days, expressed as RSD (%) (n=5), were less than 19 and 24%, respectively. The average limit of detection (LOD) was of 65 microg kg(-1) s (range found 9-135) and the average limit of quantification (LOQ) was of 230 microg kg(-1) (range found 50-450) of dry weight (d.w.). Under optimized conditions we used this method to determine the compounds in industrial and municipal sewage sludge samples and in sludge from a potable water treatment plant. Methylamine and isobutylamine showed the highest levels in one of the industrial sewage sludge samples (404 and 543 mg kg(-1) (d.w.), respectively). To our knowledge, this paper presents for the first time the determination of ten primary amines in sewage sludge samples using PHWE.
- SourceAvailable from: Valery A Isidorov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of the sewage treatment plant were analyzed. A simple method using off-line headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed for extraction and detection of organic pollutants. For reliable identification of compounds, combination of two independent parameters: mass spectra and linear temperature programmed retention indices were employed. Over 170 compounds of different structure were identified including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carbonyls, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine containing compounds. The prevailing substances included: ethyl ether, n-hexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, mesitylene, m-ethylbenzene, limonene, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. A few compounds such as methanetiol, dimethyl polisulfide, octaatomic sulfur, phthalic anhydride, and indoles were identified in the sludge for the first time.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 06/2011; 184(5):2893-907. · 1.59 Impact Factor