Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of zoster vaccine in subjects with a history of herpes zoster.
ABSTRACT Prior clinical studies of zoster vaccine enrolled subjects without a history of herpes zoster (HZ), so there are limited data on safety and immunogenicity in vaccinees with a prior history of HZ. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of zoster vaccine recipients who had a prior episode of HZ.
A total of 101 subjects > or = 50 years of age with a prior history of HZ were enrolled. They were stratified by number of years since their HZ (5 to 9 years and > or = 10 years, in an approximate 2:1 ratio), and randomized 1:1 to one of two vaccination groups. On day 1, Group I was administered zoster vaccine and Group II received placebo. At week 4, Group I received placebo and Group II received zoster vaccine. Subjects were followed for adverse experiences (AEs), exposure to varicella or HZ, and development of any varicella/varicella-like or HZ/HZ-like rashes, for 28 days after each injection. Blood samples were obtained prior to study injection on day 1 and week 4, and at week 8. Serum was assessed for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody concentration by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
No serious AEs were reported within the 28-day safety follow-up period following any vaccination. Although a higher percentage of subjects reported injection-site AEs after receiving zoster vaccine than did placebo recipients, the proportion of subjects reporting systemic clinical AEs was similar in both groups. Zoster vaccine induced a VZV antibody response at 4 weeks post-vaccination. The estimated geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (vaccine/placebo) was 2.07 (95% CI: 1.48, 2.88). The geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) from prevaccination to week 4 post-vaccination was 2.1 in zoster vaccine recipients, versus 1.0 in placebo recipients.
In HZ history-positive adults > or = 50 years of age, zoster vaccine: (1) was well tolerated; and (2) significantly boosted the level of VZV antibody from baseline to 4 weeks post-vaccination as measured by GMT and GMFR. These data support the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' recommendation for routine zoster vaccination for all immunocompetent persons >/=60 years of age irrespective of HZ history.
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ABSTRACT: The vaccine Zostavax has been shown to prevent herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia and is recommended for individuals > or =60 years of age. This study compared the safety and the immunogenicity of a refrigerator-stable formulation (Zostavax refrigerated) with those of the current formulation (Zostavax frozen) in subjects > or =50 years of age. Subjects with a negative history for HZ were randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of either formulation. Enrollment was stratified 1:2 by age (50 to 59 years and > or =60 years). Safety was evaluated for 28 days postvaccination. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody responses were measured by a glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). The primary endpoints were the VZV antibody geometric mean titer (GMT; day 28), the VZV antibody geometric mean rise (GMR; days 1 to 28), and the incidence of vaccine-related serious adverse experiences (AEs) over 28 days. The refrigerated (n = 182) and frozen (n = 185) formulations induced similar GMTs (727.4 and 834.4 gpELISA units/ml, respectively); the estimated GMT ratio (refrigerated formulation/frozen formulation) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.07). The GMRs were 2.6- and 2.9-fold, respectively. No vaccine-related serious AEs were reported in either group, and the safety profiles of the formulations were generally similar. The frequencies of injection-site AEs during follow-up were 35.6% and 46.4% in the refrigerated and the frozen formulation groups, respectively, and were generally mild. The frequencies of systemic AEs were similar in the two groups, and those of vaccine-related AEs were approximately 6% in both groups. The refrigerator-stable formulation of Zostavax has an acceptable safety profile and is as immunogenic as the frozen formulation; thus, the vaccine may be used in clinical settings where freezer availability is limited.Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI 03/2008; 15(2):314-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Varicella is a highly contagious viral disease found throughout the world. A live-attenuated Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (Oka/Merck strain), VARIVAXtrade mark, was licensed in the United States (US) in 1995 and was made a part of the US recommended childhood vaccination schedule in 1996. The immune response to VZV-containing vaccines has been measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to glycoproteins from VZV. A correlate for protective immunity has been established between anti-VZV glycoprotein antibody levels and protection against breakthrough varicella in children, and this correlate is used as the primary immunogenicity endpoint in clinical trials with VZV-containing vaccines. The performance of the "first generation" validated version of the assay was recently reevaluated in order to identify areas for improvement. Specific format and reagent changes were implemented, with the goal of improving assay consistency by maintaining tighter control over assay processes and reagents. An extensive validation of the "second generation" gpELISA was undertaken in order to characterize the updated assay. In this article, we describe the gpELISA method, detail the procedures used to evaluate assay performance, and present the operating characteristics of the second generation gpELISA.Journal of Medical Virology 01/2007; 78(12):1679-87. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and severity of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia increase with age in association with a progressive decline in cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We tested the hypothesis that vaccination against VZV would decrease the incidence, severity, or both of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults. We enrolled 38,546 adults 60 years of age or older in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an investigational live attenuated Oka/Merck VZV vaccine ("zoster vaccine"). Herpes zoster was diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory criteria. The pain and discomfort associated with herpes zoster were measured repeatedly for six months. The primary end point was the burden of illness due to herpes zoster, a measure affected by the incidence, severity, and duration of the associated pain and discomfort. The secondary end point was the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. More than 95 percent of the subjects continued in the study to its completion, with a median of 3.12 years of surveillance for herpes zoster. A total of 957 confirmed cases of herpes zoster (315 among vaccine recipients and 642 among placebo recipients) and 107 cases of postherpetic neuralgia (27 among vaccine recipients and 80 among placebo recipients) were included in the efficacy analysis. The use of the zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster by 61.1 percent (P<0.001), reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5 percent (P<0.001), and reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51.3 percent (P<0.001). Reactions at the injection site were more frequent among vaccine recipients but were generally mild. The zoster vaccine markedly reduced morbidity from herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2005; 352(22):2271-84. · 51.66 Impact Factor