Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Three main processes in Natural Language Processing are syntax analysis or parsing, semantic interpretation and contextual interpretation. This paper discuss about the first and the second of these processes. Parsing is the recognition of the sentence structure based on a grammar and a lexicon. Parsing can be done in either top-down or bottom-up methods, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Top-down parsers can not handle grammar with left-recursion, where bottom-up parsers can not handle grammar with empty production. The best parsers combine these two approaches. Semantic interpretation is the process of mapping a sentence into its context-independent meaning representation called logical form. There are two processes needed in building logical form, the first is to identify the semantic roles that each word and phrase plays in the sentence, the second is to choose the correct sense of each word to build a plausible sentence, which called word-sense disambiguation. The semantic roles may be represented using predicate-argument relations or using the thematic roles, word-sense disambiguation can be done by selectional restrictions or by context-activation. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tiga proses utama yang dilakukan dalam pengolahan bahasa alami ialah analisa sintaksis, interpretasi semantik dan interpretasi kontekstual. Makalah ini akan membahas mengenai proses yang pertama dan kedua. Analisa sintaksis atau parsing ialah proses penentuan struktur sebuah kalimat berdasarkan grammar dan lexicon tertentu. Parsing dapat dilakukan secara top-down maupun bottom-up, masing-masing memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangannya sendiri. Top-down parsing tidak dapat menangani grammar dengan left-recursion, sedangkan bottom-up parsing tidak dapat menangani grammar dengan empty production. Karena itu metode parsing yang terbaik ialah yang dapat menggabungkan kedua cara ini. Interpretasi semantik ialah proses penerjemahan sebuah kalimat menjadi bentuk representasi artinya yang umum disebut logical form tanpa memperhatikan konteks. Dua proses utama yang diperlukan dalam membentuk logical form ialah penentuan peran tiap kata dan frase dalam kalimat, serta pemilihan arti kata yang tepat untuk membentuk kalimat yang masuk akal. Peranan kata-kata dan frase dalam kalimat dapat direpresentasikan dalam bentuk predikat-argumen biasa ataupun menggunakan thematic roles. Sedangkan proses pemilihan arti kata yang tepat dapat dilakukan dengan selectional restrictions ataupun context activation. Kata kunci: pengolahan bahasa alami, analisa sintaksis, interpretasi semantik, grammar, lexicon.

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    ABSTRACT: ase-structure rules and gives a simple presentation of ID/LP rules and transformational grammar. Chapter 5 introduces a unification-based grammar formalism and an extension to Prolog for this. Chapter 6 describes and compares top-down, bottom-up, left-corner, and chart parsing as well as Earley's algorithm. Chapter 7 offers techniques for representing, in Prolog, knowledge from English sentences. Chap- 137 Computational Linguistics Volume 22, Number 1 ter 8 discusses language translation, word-sense disambiguation, and understanding events. Chapter 9 presents some background on morphology as well as some models and techniques for computational morphology. Appendix A is a thorough review of Prolog (it accounts for 10% of the book!). Appendix B provides Prolog code for string input and tokenization, used elsewhere in the text. This is not the first book that deals with NLP and Prolog. Gazdar and Mellish (1989) wrote a book primarily on NLP, which uses Prolog to illustrate linguistic con
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    ABSTRACT: From the preface: The book is organized by problem area, rather than by technique. Rather than have a chapter on augmented transition networks, then another on context-free grammars, and another on logic-based grammars, the book is organized by linguistic problem. There is a chapter on basic context-free parsing that shows that the parsing techniques underlying all three of these representations are essentially the same. Then there is a chapter on simple augmented systems, again showing the similarities between each of the approaches. Finally, there is a chapter on how long-distance dependencies are handled. While three different representations are presented for syntactic processing, the remainder of the book develops a single set of representations and translates all work in the area into these formalisms. In particular, the representations used are based on semantic networks, logical form, Horn clause logic systems, and frame-based systems. The book is divided into three main parts syntactic processing, semantic processing, and the use of context and general world knowledge. Each of these parts contains some introductory chapters that provide enough background that the material in the following parts can be understood. Part IV, Response Generation, contains two chapters. Chapter 16 examines question-answering techniques for database queries and relies only on the work in Part II. It includes two case studies of actual natural language interfaces to databases. Chapter 17 examines the issues in natural language generation and draws on the basic material from all of the first three parts.
    01/1987; Addison-Wesley., ISBN: 978-0-8053-0330-8
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    01/1987; Cambridge University Press.


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