Genetic parameters for lignin, extractives and decay in Eucalyptus globulus
ABSTRACT Eucalyptus globulus is grown in temperate regions of the world for pulp production. The chemical and physical properties of its wood make it highly suited to this purpose. This study analysed genetic variation in lignin content, extractives content and decay, for nine localities of E. globulus. Heritability estimates were also obtained, and the relationships between these traits and physical wood traits and growth were examined. Significant genetic variation was found between localities for lignin content (Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin contents) and decay. The only trait for which significant variation between families within locality was detected was acid-soluble lignin content, which resulted in this trait also having the highest narrow-sense heritability ($0.51 \pm 0.26$). However, family means heritabilities were high for lignin content, extractives content and decay (0.42–0.64). The chemical wood traits were strongly correlated with each other both phenotypically and genetically, with important correlations found with density and microfibril angle. Correlations suggested that during selection for the breeding objective traits, it is likely that favourable states in the chemical wood traits, decay resistance and fibre properties are concurrently being selected, whereas growth may be selected for independently. This initial study provides a stepping stone for future studies where particular localities of the breeding population may be characterised further. Paramètres génétiques pour la lignine, les extractibles et la pourriture chez Eucalyptus globulus. Eucalyptus globulus est cultivé dans de nombreuses régions tempérées pour la production de pâte à papier. Les propriétés physiques et chimiques de ce bois en font un matériau très apprécié pour cette utilisation. Cette étude analyse les variations génétiques de la teneur en lignine, en composés extractibles et de la sensibilité à la décomposition du bois de neuf provenances de Eucalyptus globulus. L'héritabilité de ces propriétés ainsi que leurs relations avec les caractéristiques physiques du bois et la croissance ont été examinées. Des différences inter-provenances significatives ont été détectées pour les teneurs en lignine (lignines dosées par la méthode de Klason, ou lignines soluble en solution acide) et la vitesse de décomposition. Le seul caractère qui a présenté une variation significative entre familles dans les provenances a été la teneur en lignines solubles en solution acide. De ce fait, une forte héritabilité (au sens strict) a été détectée pour ce caractère ($0,51 \pm 0,26$). Cependant, les héritabilités moyennes dans les familles étaient élevées pour la teneur en lignine, les teneurs en composés extractibles et la vitesse de décomposition (0,42–0,64). Les caractéristiques chimiques du bois étaient fortement inter-corrélées au niveau phénotypique et génétique, avec des corrélations importantes également avec la densité et l'angle des microfibrilles. Les corrélations suggèrent que durant la sélection de caractères objectifs d'amélioration, des traits favorables associant caractéristiques chimiques du bois, résistance à la décomposition et propriétés des fibres puissent être sélectionnés simultanément, alors que la croissance doit faire l'objet d'une sélection indépendante. Cette étude constitue une base pour de futurs travaux permettant une caractérisation plus fine de provenances particulières dans cette population de sélection.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.New Phytologist 12/2012; · 6.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25-0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (Q(ST) = 0.34-0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (F(ST) = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R(2) = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors.G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 07/2011; 1(2):151-9. · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: • Context The genetic and environmental control of microfibril angle (MFA) and its genetic correlations with other wood and growth traits are still not well established in Eucalyptus sp. • Aims To determine the narrow-sense heritability estimates (h 2) of MFA, wood density (D), Klason lignin (KL) content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio and growth traits, their variation from pith to cambium and their genetic correlations. • Methods Heritability and correlations were assessed in 340 control-pollinated progenies of 14-year-Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake using near infrared spectroscopic models. • Results Moderate to high heritability were found for MFA (h 2 = 0.43), D (h 2 = 0.61), S/G (h 2 = 0.71) and LK (h 2 = 0.76). The genetic control of D and MFA and the genetic and residual correlation between chemical and growth traits varied with age. The genetic correlation C × D was always strongly negative (r < −0.80) while the correlation D × MFA remained constant and positive in the juvenile wood (r = 0.7), before disappearing in the mature wood. These results could be explained by gene pleiotropic effect, low microfibril angle compensating for low wood density and fast growth or by linkage disequilibrium induced by sampling. Variations in MFA and KL in the mature wood were also genetically controlled. • Conclusions These findings provide the opportunity for developing breeding strategies for pulpwood, fuelwood and sawntimber production in Eucalyptus sp.Annals of Forest Science 02/2013; 69(6). · 1.63 Impact Factor